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Technical Brief

An Experimental Study of Friction and Wear Characteristics of Sunflower and Soybean Oil Methyl Ester Under the Steady-State Conditions by the Four-Ball Wear Testing Machine

[+] Author and Article Information
Mahmoud Amiri Nazari Barsari

Department of Mechanical Engineering;Modern Manufacturing Technologies Research Center,
Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Najafabad 8514143131, Iran

Alireza Shirneshan

Department of Mechanical Engineering;Modern Manufacturing Technologies Research Center,
Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Najafabad 8514143131, Iran
e-mails: arshirneshan@yahoo.com;
shirneshan@pmc.iaun.ac.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received August 16, 2018; final manuscript received December 14, 2018; published online January 25, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Satish V. Kailas.

J. Tribol 141(4), 044501 (Jan 25, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1454; doi: 10.1115/1.4042390 History: Received August 16, 2018; Revised December 14, 2018

According to that the fuel pump and injectors of the diesel engines are lubricated by the fuel itself, so the lubrication property of the fuels is an important issue in internal combustion engines. Biodiesel is one of the most famous biofuels that can be used in diesel engines. In this research, wear characteristics of biodiesel derived from sunflower and soybean oil blends were investigated. The five fuel blends were tested under steady-state conditions (with durations of 1500 and 3600 s) at four different rotational speeds of 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 rpm. An optical microscope was also applied to check out the worn surfaces of the balls. The results indicated that wear and friction as tribological properties were reduced with the increase in the rotating speed under the steady-state condition. It was found that with an increase in the biodiesel concentration, the friction coefficient was reduced at lower rotating speeds due to free fatty acids, monoglycerides, and diglycerides as the components of biodiesel which help improve the lubrication properties of biodiesel and reduce the friction more than that of other blends. However, in higher rotational speeds, friction and wear of fuel blends included biodiesel increased due to reduced viscosity as the causes of oxidation which helps in the exposure of biodiesel to air at higher temperature. So, B100 has better lubricity properties compared to other fuel blends at lower rotational speeds, and better performance belongs to B20 at higher rotational speeds.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The four-ball wear testing machine

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Fig. 2

Effect of the rotational speed on the friction coefficient under the steady-state condition

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Fig. 3

Effect of the biodiesel percentage in fuel blend on the friction coefficient under the steady-state condition

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Fig. 4

Effect of the rotational speed on WSD under the steady-state condition (1500 s)

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Fig. 5

Effect of the rotational speed on WSD under the steady-state condition (3600 s)

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Fig. 6

Effect of the biodiesel percentage in fuel blend on WSD under the steady-state condition (1500 s)

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Fig. 7

Effect of the biodiesel percentage in fuel blend on WSD under the steady-state condition (3600 s)

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Fig. 8

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B0 under the short-term condition (1500 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, and (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

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Fig. 9

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B0 under the long-term condition (3600 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, and (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

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Fig. 10

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B10 under the short-term condition (1500 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, and (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

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Fig. 11

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B10 under the long-term condition (3600 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, and (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

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Fig. 12

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B20 under the short-term condition (1500 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, and (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

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Fig. 13

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B20 under the long-term condition (3600 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, and (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

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Fig. 14

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B50 under the short-term condition (1500 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

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Fig. 15

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B50 under the long-term condition (3600 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, and (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

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Fig. 16

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B100 under the short-term condition (1500 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, and (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Worn surfaces of the steel balls for B100 under the long-term condition (3600 s) at (a) 600 rpm, (b) 900 rpm, (c) 1200 rpm, and (d) 1500 rpm are magnified by 200

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