Research Papers: Friction and Wear

To Study the Role of WC Reinforcement and Deep Cryogenic Treatment on AZ91 MMNC Wear Behavior Using Multilevel Factorial Design

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Karuppusamy

Department of Automobile Engineering,
Mahalingam College of Engineering and
Pollachi, Tamil Nadu 642003, India
e-mail: karuppusamy.auto@mcet.in

K. Lingadurai

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Anna University College of Engineering Dindigul,
Dindigul, Tamil Nadu 624622, India
e-mail: lingadurai@gmail.com

V. Sivananth

Engineering Department,
Mechanical/Industrial Section,
Ibri College of Technology,
Ibri 516, Oman
e-mail: vsivananth@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received August 14, 2018; final manuscript received January 2, 2019; published online January 29, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yi Zhu.

J. Tribol 141(4), 041608 (Jan 29, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1329; doi: 10.1115/1.4042506 History: Received August 14, 2018; Revised January 02, 2019

The present investigation explores the collective outcome of hard particle reinforcement with deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on wear responses of magnesium metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNC). A multilevel factorial design of experiments with control factors of applied load (20 and 40 N), sliding speed (1.3, 1.7, 2.2, and 3.3 m/s), reinforcement % (0% and 1.5%), and cryogenic treatment (cryogenic-treated and nontreated) was deployed. Around 1.5 wt % WC-reinforced MMNC were fabricated using stir-casting process. DCT was performed at −190 °C with soaking time of 24 h. The dry sliding wear trials were done on pin-on-disk tribometer with MMNC pin and EN8 steel disk for a constant sliding distance of 2 km. The WC reinforcement contributed toward the improvement in wear rate of MMNC appreciably by absorbing the load and frictional heat at all loads and speeds. During DCT of AZ91, the secondary ß-phase (Mg17Al12) was precipitated that enriched the wear resistance, only for the higher load of 40 N. Scanning electron microscope analyses of the cryogenic-treated MMNC ensured the existence of both ß-phase precipitates and WC in the contact area. As a result, the adhesiveness of this pin was lesser, which attributed to the improved wear resistance (approximately 33%) as compared to base alloy. The coefficient of friction was also less for cryogenic-treated MMNC. A regression analysis was made to correlate the control elements and the responses.

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Fig. 1

(a) Magnesium stir-casting setup; (b) schematic diagram of melting technique: (0–1) melting, superheating to 850 °C; (1–2) stirring, adding WC; (2–3) cooling to 780 °C, stirring; (3–4) refining, settling; and (4–5) pouring; (c) wear monitor and data acquisition system; and (d) pin-on-disk tribometer

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Fig. 2

Energy dispersive spectrometry analysis of (a) AZ91 and (b) Mg-MMNC

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Fig. 3

SEM images of (a) base alloy AZ91, (b) Mg-MMNC, and (c) cryogenic-treated AZ91

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Fig. 4

Hardness—Rockwell E scale and ultimate tensile strength of samples

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Fig. 5

Real-time plot of CF

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Fig. 6

Volumetric wear rate of samples against sliding speed at (a) 20 N and (b) 40 N

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Fig. 7

CF of samples against sliding speed at (a) 20 N and (b) 40 N

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Fig. 8

Influence of control factors on wear rate: (a) main effects plot and (b) interaction plot

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Fig. 9

Influence of control factors on CF: (a) main effects plot and (b) interaction plot

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Fig. 10

SEM images of sample tested with sliding speed: (a) 1.3 m/s, (b) 1.7 m/s, (c) 2.2 m/s, and (d) 3.3 m/s at normal load 20N

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Fig. 11

(a) Loads acting on a contact point during sliding and (b) concentration of frictional work at the asperity contacts

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Fig. 12

SEM image of disk surface for sliding speed 3.3 m/s at (a) 20 N and (b) 40 N

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Fig. 13

SEM image of wear-tested MMNC pin

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Fig. 14

Archard's proportionality constant

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Fig. 15

Normal probability and histogram plots of residuals for (a) wear rate and (b) CF



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