Research Papers: Micro-Nano Tribology

Facile Synthesis of Uniform Calcite Microcubes and Their Enhanced Tribological Performance in Lithium-Based Commercial Grease

[+] Author and Article Information
Khalida Akhtar

National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry,
University of Peshawar,
Peshawar 25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
e-mail: khalidaakhtar@uop.edu.pk

Abid Hussain

National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry,
University of Peshawar,
Peshawar 25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
e-mail: abidturi@hotmail.com

Muhammad Gul

National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry,
University of Peshawar,
Peshawar 25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
e-mail: mg46asim@gmail.com

Hina Khalid

National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry,
University of Peshawar,
Peshawar 25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
e-mail: hinakhd@yahoo.com

Saniya Yousaf Zai

National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry,
University of Peshawar,
Peshawar 25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
e-mail: yousafzaaai2468@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received October 1, 2018; final manuscript received January 24, 2019; published online March 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Min Zou.

J. Tribol 141(5), 052002 (Mar 11, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1408; doi: 10.1115/1.4042677 History: Received October 01, 2018; Accepted January 25, 2019

This study describes a facile synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) monodispersed fine particles from an abundant indigenous and economical source (quicklime) and its enhanced tribological performance as a green additive in commercial lithium grease (CLG). The effects of various experimental parameters on particle morphology were thoroughly examined, and the conditions were optimized. The synthesized uniform particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and thermogravimetric (TG) /differential thermal analysis (DTA), and their results confirmed the calcite structure of the synthesized particles. The friction and wear studies were carried out under the applied load of 0.863 N at an ambient temperature for 5 min. The tribological performance of various amounts (1–7%) of cubic-CaCO3 (CCC) particles in CLG showed that 5 wt. % of CCC was the optimum concentration as additive in the present case. For comparison purposes, a commercial CaCO3 powder was used and a decrease in the friction coefficient of CLG was observed to be 33.4% and 16.4% for 5 wt. % CCC and commercial CaCO3 additives, respectively. The significantly enhanced antiwear and antifriction performance of the optimum CCC-CLG in comparison with the blank and commercial CaCO3-additized CLG was quite encouraging, and extensive studies in a real machine-operating environment are in progress for evaluation of the CCC-CLG blend to be used as an economical, green, and high-performance lubricant in mechanical components.

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Fig. 1

Selected SEMs of the particles obtained during optimization of the recipe for uniform fine particles of calcium carbonate, by the reaction of either carbonated water or CO2 and Ca(OH)2 solution under different experimental conditions

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Fig. 2

Low- and high-magnification SEM images of calcium carbonate particles obtained by bubbling carbon dioxide gas with a flow rate of 0.5 mol/l for 70 s through a 1.95 × 10−2 mol/l solution of calcium hydroxide maintained at 30 °C

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Fig. 3

Schematics of the experimental setup for the synthesis of calcium carbonate powder by the bubbling of carbon dioxide gas through a calcium hydroxide solution

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Fig. 4

XRD of the cubic calcium carbonate particles shown in Fig. 2

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Fig. 5

Fourier transform infrared spectra of the calcium carbonate particles shown in Fig. 2

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Fig. 6

Thermogravimetric (a) and differential thermal analysis (b) curves of the cubic calcium carbonate particles shown in Fig. 2

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Fig. 7

Decomposition fraction “α” against temperature for the particles of calcium carbonate

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Fig. 8

Plot of ln[−ln(1−α)/T2] against 1/T for the particles of calcium carbonate shown in Fig. 2

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Fig. 9

Wear track width of steel stubs lubricated by CLG containing 5 wt. % of (a) CCC, (b) commercial CaCO3, and (c) additive-free CLG

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Fig. 10

Coefficient of friction versus time for (A) blank, (B) 5 wt. % commercial CaCO3 additized, and (C) 5 wt. % CCC-additized CLG

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Fig. 11

Wear volume of (A) an additive-free CLG and varying amounts of (B) commercial CaCO3, and (C) CCC particles in CLG

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Fig. 12

Friction coefficient of (A) additive-free CLG and varying amounts of (B) commercial CaCO3, and (C) CCC particles in CLG

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Fig. 13

SEM images at different magnifications of commercial CaCO3 obtained from BDH Chemicals Limited (UK)

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Fig. 14

EDX spectrum of the worn surface of a steel stub lubricated by CLG containing 5 wt. % of CCC particles



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