Research Papers: Applications

Experimental Investigation of the Dynamic Loads in a Ball Bearing Turbocharger

[+] Author and Article Information
Benjamin Conley

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: conley39@purdue.edu

Farshid Sadeghi

Cummins Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: sadeghi@purdue.edu

Robert C. Griffith

Turbocharging Systems-Component Engineering COE,
Caterpillar Inc.,
Mossville, IL 61552
e-mail: Griffith_Robert_C@cat.com

Jeffrey W. McCormack

Air Systems-Large Power Systems Division,
Caterpillar Inc.,
Lafayette, IN 47905
e-mail: McCormack_Jeffrey_W@cat.com

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received April 16, 2019; final manuscript received July 9, 2019; published online August 2, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Wenzhong Wang.

J. Tribol 141(11), (Aug 02, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-19-1172; doi: 10.1115/1.4044296 History: Received April 16, 2019; Accepted July 12, 2019

The objectives of this investigation were to design and develop an experimental turbocharger test rig (TTR) to measure the shaft whirl of the rotating assembly and the axial and frictional loads experienced by the bearings. The TTR contains a ball bearing turbocharger (TC) that was instrumented and operated under various test conditions up to 55,000 rpm. In order to measure the thrust loads on the compressor and turbine sides, customized sensors were integrated into the TC housing. The anti-rotation (AR) pin that normally prevents the bearing cartridge from rotating was replaced with a custom-made load cell adapter system. This sensor was used to measure the frictional losses in the bearing cartridge without altering the operation of the TC. Proximity sensors (probes) were also installed in the compressor housing to monitor shaft whirl. Axial load results indicated that the compressor side bears most of the thrust load. As the backpressure or the speed of the TC was increased, the thrust load also increased. Frictional measurements from the AR pin sensor demonstrated low power losses in the ball bearing cartridge. For certain shaft speed ranges, the data from the sensors illustrated periodic trends in response to the subsynchronous whirl of the shaft.

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Fig. 1

(a) Section view of the ball bearing turbocharger computer-aided design (CAD) model and (b) turbocharger test rig labeled to show locations of components and connections

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Fig. 2

Images of compressor insert from the design and assembly process: (a) CAD model, (b) gages attached, (c) FEA strain plot, and (d) insert installed in backplate

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Fig. 3

Images of the turbine side inserts from the design and assembly process. All three beams have identical dimensions: (a) CAD model and (b) gages installed.

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Fig. 4

Calibration curves for the axial load sensors: (a) compressor sensor and (b) turbine sensor

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Fig. 5

Detailed view of the anti-rotation pin sensor showing components fabricated to adapt the bending beam load cell to function like the standard anti-rotation pin

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Fig. 6

(a) Apparatus used to calibrate anti-rotation pin sensor and (b) resulting calibration curve

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Fig. 7

CAD model showing the turbocharger with all load sensors installed

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Fig. 8

Waterfall plots showing the rotordynamic behavior of the turbocharger at two different operating temperatures: (a) 66 °C (150 °F) and (b) 93 °C (200 °F)

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Fig. 9

Loads experienced by the axial load sensors during a gradual ramp up to maximum speed. Oil temperature was 66 °C (150 °F) and a 0.1 s moving average was applied to the data: (a) compressor and (b) turbine.

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Fig. 10

Net compressor and net turbine loads for a small section of the rundown depicted in Figs. 9(a) and 9(b). The force traces were centered around zero for this comparison.

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Fig. 11

Response of axial load sensors to different backpressure levels. Oil temperature was 66 °C (150 °F) and a 0.1 s moving average was applied to the data: (a) compressor and (b) turbine.

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Fig. 12

Torque measurements for the anti-rotation pin sensor for a test with both a run-up and rundown. Oil temperature was 93 °C (200 °F).

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Fig. 13

Axial and frictional load data collected from all three sensors. Speed curve is the same as in Figs. 9(a) and 9(b). Oil temperature was 66 °C (150 °F) and a 0.1 s moving average was applied to the axial load data.

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Fig. 14

Characterization of subsynchronous shaft whirl at 19.4 krpm (0.003 s per revolution) in the test data shown Figs. 9(a) and 9(b): (a) shaft motion, (b) frequency analysis, (c) axial sensor response, and (d) anti-rotation pin sensor response



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