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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Mechanism for Subambient Interfacial Pressures While Polishing With Liquids

[+] Author and Article Information
Joseph A. Levert, Steven Danyluk

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405

John Tichy

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering & Mechanics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590

J. Tribol 122(2), 450-457 (Aug 24, 1999) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.555381 History: Received July 14, 1998; Revised August 24, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Preston,  F. W., 1927, “The Theory and Design of Plate Glass Polishing Machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol. 11, pp. 214–257.
Archard,  J. F., 1953, “Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 24, pp. 981–988.
Levert, J. A., 1997, “Interface Mechanics of Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Integrated Circuit Planarization,” Ph.D. dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology.
Levert, J. A., Baker, A. R., Mess, F. M., Danyluk, S., Salant, R., and Cook, L., 1996, “Slurry Film Measurements for Chemical Mechanical Polishing,” Proceedings of the American Society of Precision Engineering 1996 Annual Meeting, 14 , pp. 80–85.
Levert,  J. A., Baker,  A. R., Mess,  F. M., Salant,  R. F., Danyluk,  S., and Cook,  L., 1998, “Mechanisms of Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of SiO2 Dielectric on Integrated Circuits,” STLE Tribol. Trans., 41, No. 4, pp. 593–599.
Tichy,  J., Levert,  J. A., Shan,  L., and Danyluk,  S., 1999, “Contact Mechanics and Lubrication Hydrodynamics of Chemical Mechanical Polishing,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, No. r, pp. 1523–1528.
Hooke, C. J., 1997, “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Soft Solids,” Elastohydrodynamics—96 Fundamentals and Applications in Lubrication and Traction, D. Dowson et al., ed., Elsevier Tribology Series, 32.
Johnson, K. L., 1985, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Figures

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Schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus. The view (upper) shows the sample position with respect to the turntable center while the side view (lower) shows the location of the three capacitance probes for vertical wafer differential displacement measurement. The expanded view shows the sample with pressure sensing holes for measurement of subambient pressures.
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Diagram of subambient pressure mechanism showing the wafer bottom view (upper), pad/wafer cross section (lower view), and the polishing pad contact stress as a function of wafer diameter
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Flow chart of the model solution algorithm showing the four major parts
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Static pad deformation (μm) versus pressure (kPa) for a 100 mm diameter wafer on a water-wetted perforated pad after conditioning with 7.5 μm Ra roughness. The slope of the linear regression (solid line) along with the pad thickness (1.25 mm) was used to determine the value of the pad modulus (complianceL).
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Liquid pressure distributions used in model
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Diagram of the in-flow length (l,lc) and width (b,bc) dimensions used in the model for liquid pressure calculations
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Vertical differential wafer displacement (μm) as a function of speed (m/s) for a slurry of viscosity 2.3 cps and water of viscosity 1.0 cps comparing model predictions and experimental data. The data were obtained for a 48.3 kPa normal load on an unperforated pad (with 7.5 μm Ra roughness).
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Comparison of predicted and experimental curves of liquid pressure (kPa) as a function of wafer position (μm) for three turntables speeds. The data were obtained for a 20.3 kPa normal load on an unperforated pad (with 7.5 μm (Ra) roughness) with water as a lubricant.

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