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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Wear Tests and Pull-Off Force Measurements of Single Asperities by Using Parallel Leaf Springs Installed on an Atomic Force Microscope

[+] Author and Article Information
Yasuhisa Ando

Micro-Mechanisms Division, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Namiki 1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

J. Tribol 122(3), 639-645 (Aug 10, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.555414 History: Received March 01, 1999; Revised August 10, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Figures

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FIB image of gold asperity
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Leaf springs: (a) single leaf spring, (b) parallel leaf spring
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Schematic showing deformation of the two types of leaf spring when the load changes. For the single leaf spring, the contact point moves as the load changes, whereas for the parallel leaf spring, it does not. (a) Rubbing under load (single leaf spring). (b) Instant at which the pull-off force is measured under a reduced load (single leaf spring). (c) Rubbing under load (parallel leaf spring). (d) Instant at which the pull-off force is measured under a reduced load (parallel leaf spring).
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Schematic of experimental procedure. (a) The single or parallel leaf spring being used for wear test and for pull-off force measurement. (b) Topography of the worn asperity being measured by using a conventional sharp probe.
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Relation between the pull-off force and the sliding distance for (a) the single leaf spring and Asperity 1, and (b) the parallel leaf spring and Asperities 2 and 3. Pull-off force is the average of 256 measurements, and error bars show the standard deviation.
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AFM images of the peaks for (a) to (c) Asperity 2 during the wear tests using the parallel leaf spring under a normal load of 570 nN, and (d) Asperity 1 after the wear tests using the single leaf spring under a normal load of 530 nN. (a) Before the wear test (Asperity 2). (b) At a sliding distance of 37 mm (Asperity 2). (c) At a sliding distance of 80 mm (Asperity 2). (d) Asperity rubbed against the single leaf spring (Asperity 1).
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AFM images of the sliding plane of the parallel leaf spring taken after all wear tests were completed. (a) Area around the center of the sliding plane, showing some bumps. (b) Close-up view of the surface, showing no bumps. Many micro asperities are visible, showing an RMS roughness of 1.5 nm.
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Schematic of worn asperity with worn flat areas S1 and S2
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Wear rate as a function of external normal load and the sum of external normal load and pull-off force
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Relation between pull-off force and flat worn area for the parallel leaf spring
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Meniscus formed between an asperity and the sliding plane of the parallel leaf spring. (a) Meniscus covers the entire worn area. (b) Meniscus forms on micro asperities on the sliding plane.

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