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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Study of the Lubrication Behavior of Solid Lubricants in the Upsetting Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Tamotsu Nakamura, Shigekazu Tanaka, Kunio Hayakawa, Yoshiaki Fukai

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu, 432-8561, Japan

J. Tribol 122(4), 803-808 (Mar 22, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1310159 History: Received December 14, 1999; Revised March 22, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Barry,  H. F., and Binkelman,  J. P., 1966, “MoS2 Lubrication of Various Metals,” J. ASLE, 22, No. 4, pp. 139–145.
Bowden, F. P., and Tabor, D., 1964, The Friction and Lubrication of Solids Part 2, Oxford University Press, U.K., pp. 186–205.
Bowers,  R. C., and Zisman,  W. A., 1968, “Pressure Effects on the Friction Coefficient of Thin-Film Solid Lubricants,” J. Appl. Phys., 39, No. 12, pp. 5385–5395.
Bowers,  R. C., 1971, “Coefficient of Friction of High Polymers as a Function of Pressure,” J. Appl. Phys., 42, No. 12, pp. 4961–4970.
Briscoe,  B. J., and Smith,  A. C., 1982, “Interfacial Shear Strength of MoS2 and Graphite Films,” ASLE Trans., 25, No. 3, pp. 349–354.
De Gee,  A. W. J., Salomon,  G., and Zaat,  J. H., 1965, “On the Mechanisms of MoS2—Film Failure in Sliding Friction,” ASLE Trans., 8, pp. 156–163.
Dreing,  D. W., and Atluri,  S., 1997, “Traction Behavior and Physical Properties of Powder Graphite Lubricants Compacted to Herzian Pressure Levels,” Tribol. Trans., 40, pp. 413–420.
Karpe,  S. A., 1965, “The Effects of Load on the Frictional Properties of Molybdenum Disulfide,” ASLE Trans., 8, pp. 164–178.
Johnson,  J. R., and Wilson,  W. R. D., 1981, “Entrainment of Pressure-Hardening Solid Lubricant Coatings in Hydrodynamic Extrusion,” ASLE Trans., 24, No. 3, pp. 307–316.
Wilson,  W. R. D., and Lak,  S., 1977, “The Transport and Breakdown of Solid Lubricants in a Simple Forging Operation,” Trans. ASME J. Lubr. Eng., 99, No. 2, pp. 230–235.
Wilson, W. R. D., 1978, “The Mechanics of Solid Lubrication of Metal Forming Processes,” Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute, IIT Research Institute, Chicago, pp. 48–55.
Nakamura, T., and Hiraiwa, M., 1990, “Development of Tribo-Forming Processes,” Proc. of the 3rd ICTP, 2 , Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 1047–1052.
Tang, J., 1994, FEM Simulation Program DEFORM2 Users Guide, Scientific Technologies Corporation, Columbus, OH.

Figures

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Some examples of workmetal upset until Re=60 percent by smooth surface dies
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FEM simulation model for upsetting of circular blank
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Some results of flow pattern of workmetal and lubricant by FEM simulation (μM=0.15,μD=0.05)
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Variations of thickness distribution of solid lubricant film during upsetting process (μM=0.15,μD=0.05)
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Some results of flow pattern of workmetal and lubricant by FEM simulation (μM=0.15,μD=0.10)
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Variations of thickness distribution of solid lubricant film during upsetting process (μM=0.15,μD=0.10)
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Variation of outer rim radius rf of solid lubricant with friction coefficient μD at constant high friction μM=0.15
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Variation of outer rim radius rf of solid lubricant with friction coefficient μD at constant low friction μM=0.05
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Variation of critical reduction in height (Re)cr by friction coefficients μD and μM
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Experimental plots on diagram showing metal to metal contact area obtained by FEM simulations (μM=0.05)
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Schematic illustration of friction testing apparatus to evaluate frictional characteristics of solid lubricant
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Schematic illustration of testing apparatus to measure yield shear stress of solid powder lubricant
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Relationship between frictional shear stress τf or yield shear stress k of four kinds of solid lubricant and punch pressure p
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Friction coefficients μ of solid lubricants with the punch pressure p
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Microscopic observations of solid lubricants after friction tests
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Friction surfaces of workmetal and tool during upsetting by rough surface dies of Ry=1.8 μm with PTFE lubricant

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