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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Flow Factors for Lubrication With Emulsions in Ironing

[+] Author and Article Information
Steven R. Schmid, Jin Zhou

Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556

J. Tribol 123(2), 283-289 (Apr 17, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1310369 History: Received November 09, 1999; Revised April 17, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Hosford,  W. F., and Duncan,  J. L., 1994, “The Aluminum Beverage Can,” Sci. Am., 271, pp. 48–53.
Schey, J. A., 1983, Tribology in Metalworking: Friction, Lubrication and Wear, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH.
Jaworski,  J. A., Schmid,  S. R., and Wang,  J. E., 1999, “An Experimental Investigation of the Survivability and Friction Characteristics of Tin-Coated and Polymer-Laminated Steels,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 121, pp. 232–237.
Schmid,  S. R., and Wilson,  W. R. D., 1996, “Lubrication Mechanisms for Oil-in-Water Emulsions,” Lubr. Eng., 52, pp. 168–175.
Dow, T. A., 1977, “A Rheology Model for Oil-in-Water,” CASA Technical Paper MS77-399.
Prunet-Foch,  B., Legay-Desquelles,  F., and Vignes-Adler,  M., 1991, “Dynamics of Spreading of Industrial Oil-in-Water Emulsions on Steel Surfaces,” J. Mater. Sci., 26, pp. 369–382.
Schmid, S. R., 1993, “Lubrication with Emulsions,” Ph.D. thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
Truesdell, C., 1969, Rational Thermodynamics, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Al-Sharif,  A., Chamniprasart,  K., Rajagopal,  K., and Szeri,  A. Z., 1993, “Lubrication With Binary Mixtures: Liquid-Liquid Emulsion,” ASME J. Tribol., 115, pp. 46–55.
Wang,  S. H., Szeri,  A. Z., and Rajagopal,  K. R., 1993, “Lubrication with Emulsion in Cold Rolling,” ASME J. Tribol., 115, No. 3, pp. 523–531.
Wilson,  W. R. D., Sakaguchi,  Y., and Schmid,  S. R., 1994, “A Mixed Flow Model for Lubrication with Emulsions,” Tribol. Trans., 37, pp. 543–551.
Wilson,  W. R. D., Sakaguchi,  Y., and Schmid,  S. R., 1993, “A Dynamic Concentration Model for Lubrication with Oil-in-Water Emulsions,” Wear, 161, pp. 207–212.
Kimura, Y., and Okada, K., 1985, “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Oil-in-Water Emulsions,” Proc. JSLE Int. Trib. Conf., pp. 937–942.
Kimura,  Y., and Okada,  K., 1987, “Film Thickness at Elastohydrodynamic Conjunctions Lubricated with Oil-in-Water Emulsions,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci., C176, pp. 85–90.
Kimura,  Y., and Okada,  K., 1989, “Lubricating Properties of Oil-in-Water Emulsions,” Tribol. Trans., 32, pp. 523–532.
Ishii,  M., and Mishima,  K., 1984, “Two Fluid and Hydrodynamic Constitutive Relations,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 82, pp. 107–126.
Sakaguchi, Y., 1983, “An Elastohydrodynamic Inlet Zone Analysis of Emulsions,” Master’s thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
Wilson, W. R. D., and Walowit, J. A., 1972, “An Isothermal Lubrication Theory for Strip Rolling with Front and Back Tension,” Trib. Conv. 1971, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London. pp. 164–172.
Schmid,  S. R., and Wilson,  W. R. D., 1995, “Lubrication of Aluminum Rolling by Oil-in-Water Emulsions,” Tribol. Trans., 38, pp. 452–458.
Kumar,  A., Schmid,  S. R., and Wilson,  W. R. D., 1997, “Droplet Behavior in Two-Phased Lubrication,” Wear, 206, pp. 130–135.

Figures

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The metal forming operations used in the production of beverage containers
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Illustration of the Dynamic Concentration Theory of Emulsion Lubrication, from Wilson et al. 11
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Modeling of emulsion flow in an inlet zone: (a) idealized geometry of oil droplets; (b) control volume for idealized droplets; (c) effective control volume
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Modeling of emulsion flow in an ironing inlet zone: (a) idealized geometry of oil droplets; (b) control volume for idealized droplets
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Discretization of the large droplet case: (a) finite element mesh; (b) resultant velocity vectors
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Flow correction factors for emulsion lubrication
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Discretization of the smaller droplet case: (a) finite element mesh; (b) resultant velocity vectors
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Correction factor R as a function of dimensionless pressure gradient for oil droplets entrained as both hemispheres and cylinders
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Emulsion concentration rate as a function of dimensionless pressure gradient for oil droplets entrained as cylinders and hemispheres

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