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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Physically Based Modeling of Reciprocating Lip Seal Friction

[+] Author and Article Information
Dirk B. Wassink, Kenneth C. Ludema

The University of Michigan, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125

Viesturs G. Lenss, Joel A. Levitt

Ford Motor Company, P.O. Box 2053, Dearborn, MI 48121-2053

J. Tribol 123(2), 404-412 (Feb 29, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1310370 History: Received September 03, 1999; Revised February 29, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Schematic of modified hydraulic actuator used for friction measurement
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Schematic of lip seal cross section. While similar seals are often used in rotating shaft applications, this type of seal also has found significant application in automotive axial-direction sliding hydraulic actuators.
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Schematic of lip seal friction measurement components (close-up view of left end of actuator shown in Fig. 1)
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Viscosity behavior of lubricants used in experiments, incorporated into friction model
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Viscoelastic property data for seal material B. Data obtained from torsional strain tests on a Rheometrics machine at a strain of 0.01 percent. Specimen tested dry, held at each temperature 30 seconds before data collection.
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Viscoelastic property representation used in model simulations for seal material B, based on Eqs. (5678)
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Parameters associated with roughness-imposed deformation component of lip seal friction model
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Graph showing how lubricant attenuates viscoelastic deformation of seal caused by changing surface interactions at the sliding interface. The “dry friction,” μi.m.,“dry”, when multiplied by “surface interaction amplitude,” Ai.m., gives an estimate of the lubricated friction component due to intermolecular forces. Simulations assume properties of seal material B at a temperature of 41°C.
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(a) Measured lip seal friction values for five oil temperatures. Data taken with shaft sliding at constant speed, each measurement at the same shaft position. Hydraulic pressure=3.45 MPa, seal material A, light paraffin oil, shaft Ra=0.25 μm. (b) Simulated lip seal friction values for five oil temperatures. Model assumes constant sliding speed, hydraulic pressure=3.45 MPa, seal material A, light paraffin oil, shaft Ra=0.25 μm.
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(a) Measured lip seal friction values for two hydraulic pressures. Data taken with shaft sliding at constant speed, each measurement at the same shaft position. Temperature=54°C, seal material A, light paraffin oil, shaft Ra=0.25 μm. (b) Simulated lip seal friction values for two hydraulic pressures. Model assumes constant sliding speed, temperature=54°C, seal material A, light paraffin oil, shaft Ra=0.25 μm.
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(a) Measured lip seal friction values for seal material A (Ts=7°C) and seal material B (Ts=12°C). Data taken with shaft sliding at constant speed, each measurement at the same shaft position. Temperature=71°C, hydraulic pressure=1.38 MPa, light paraffin oil, shaft Ra=0.25 μm. (b) Simulated lip seal friction values for two seal materials with different viscoelastic properties. Model assumes constant sliding speed, temperature=71°C, hydraulic pressure=1.38 MPa, light paraffin oil, shaft Ra=0.25 μm.
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(a) Measured lip seal friction values for two oil viscosities. Data taken with shaft oscillating at constant frequency, each measurement at the same shaft position. Temperature=54°C, hydraulic pressure=1.38 MPa, seal material B, shaft Ra=0.25 μm. (b) Simulated lip seal friction values for two oil viscosities. Model assumes constant speed, temperature=54°C, hydraulic pressure=1.38 MPs, seal material B, shaft Ra=0.25 μm.
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(a) Measured lip seal friction values for two surface roughnesses. Data, taken with shaft oscillating at constant frequency, each measurement at the same shaft position. Temperature=71°C, hydraulic pressure=1.38 MPa, seal material B, light paraffin oil. (b) Simulated lip seal friction values for two surface roughnesses. Model assumes constant speed, temperature=71°C, hydraulic pressure=1.38 MPa, seal material B, light paraffin oil.
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Model components due to three mechanisms. (a) Viscous shear dissipation; (b) hysteresis due to roughness-imposed deformation, and (c) hysteresis due to deformation caused by varying interfacial forces.

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