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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Nanotribological and Nanomechanical Properties of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Synthesized by Radio Frequency Sputtering

[+] Author and Article Information
W. Lu, K. Komvopoulos

Fellow ASME   Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

J. Tribol 123(3), 641-650 (Oct 31, 2000) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1339977 History: Received May 01, 2000; Revised October 31, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

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Miyamoto,  T., Miyake,  S., and Kaneko,  R., 1993, “Wear Resistance of C+-Implanted Silicon Investigated by Scanning Probe Microscopy,” Wear, 162–164, pp. 733–738.
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Wei,  B., and Komvopoulos,  K., 1996, “Nanoscale Indentation Hardness and Wear Characterization of Hydrogenated Carbon Thin Films,” ASME J. Tribol., 118, pp. 431–438.
Umemura,  S., Andoh,  Y., Hirono,  S., Miyamoto,  T., and Kaneko,  R., 1996, “Nanoindentation and Nanowear Tests on Amorphous Carbon Films,” Philos. Mag. A, 74, pp. 1143–1157.
Lu,  W., and Komvopoulos,  K., 1999, “Dependence of Growth and Nanomechanical Properties of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films on Radio Frequency Sputtering Conditions,” J. Appl. Phys., 86, pp. 2268–2277.
Lu,  W., and Komvopoulos,  K., 1999, “Microstructure and Nanomechanical Properties of Nitrogenated Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Synthesized by Reactive Radio Frequency Sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys., 85, pp. 2642–2651.
Lu, W., and Komvopoulos, K., 2001, “X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-ray Auger Electron Spectroscopy Analysis of Radio Frequency Sputtered Amorphous Carbon Films,” J. Appl. Phys., in press.
Lu,  W., Komvopoulos,  K., and Yeh,  S. W., 2001, “Stability of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited on Smooth Silicon Substrates by Radio Frequency Sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys., 89, pp. 2422–2433.
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Figures

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Schematic of the surface force microscope
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(a) Substrate contribution to the compliance of the film/substrate composite medium and (b) ratio of effective hardness to film hardness versus ratio of nanoindentation (contact) depth to film thickness of different a-C films
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Friction coefficient versus lateral displacement for a 20 μm radius diamond tip slid on an a-C film surface under a contact load of (a) 50 μN, (b) 100 μN, (c) 200 μN, and (d) 400 μN
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Average friction coefficient versus H(1−v2)/(σE) for a 20 μm radius diamond tip slid on different a-C films under a contact load of (a) 50 μN, (b) 100 μN, (c) 200 μN, and (d) 400 μN
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Friction coefficient versus contact load for a 20 μm radius diamond tip slid on elastically deformed a-C films. The inset table gives the effective hardness, effective hardness-to-effective elastic modulus ratio, and surface roughness of each film.
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Surface images of a-C films scratched by a 20 μm radius diamond tip under different contact loads: (a) film #27, (b) film #10, (c) film #15, and (d) film #20
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Friction coefficient versus contact load for a 20 μm radius diamond tip slid on plastically deformed a-C films. The inset table gives the effective hardness, effective hardness-to-effective elastic modulus ratio, and surface roughness of each film.
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Effective hardness-to-effective elastic modulus ratio versus effective hardness
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Surface images of an a-C film (film #28) scratched by (a) a 100 nm radius diamond tip under a contact load of 5 and 10 μN, and (b) a 20 μm radius diamond tip under a contact load in the range of 50–400 μN
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Wear rate versus H(1−v2)/(σE) for a 100 nm radius diamond tip and a 10 μN contact load
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Wear depth for the first wear cycle as a function of (a) H(1−v2)/(σE) and (b) film surface roughness for a 100 nm radius diamond tip and a 10 μN contact load
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Wear patterns on different a-C film surfaces generated after the first wear cycle with a 100 nm radius diamond tip under a 10 μN contact load. The a-C films were deposited in 5 min at RF power of 750 W, working pressure of 3 mTorr, and substrate bias voltage of (a) 0 V (film #15), (b) −100 V (film #16), (c) −200 V (film #17), and (d) −300 V (film #19).
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Wear depth versus number of wear cycles for a 100 nm radius diamond tip and a 10 μN contact load. The a-C films were deposited in 5 min at RF power of 750 W, working pressure of 3 mTorr, and substrate bias voltage of 0 V (film #15), −100 V (film #16), −200 V (film #17), and −300 V (film #19).
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Wear depth versus number of wear cycles for a 10 nm thick a-C film and different contact loads. The a-C film was deposited in 5 min at RF power of 750 W, working pressure of 3 mTorr, and substrate bias voltage of −200 V (film #17).

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