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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Surface Fatigue Lives of Case-Carburized Gears With an Improved Surface Finish

[+] Author and Article Information
T. L. Krantz

U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135

M. P. Alanou, H. P. Evans, R. W. Snidle

Cardiff University, P.O. Box 685, Cardiff, CF24 3TA, Wales, United Kingdom

J. Tribol 123(4), 709-716 (Jan 18, 2001) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1387036 History: Received February 02, 2000; Revised January 18, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

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Anderson,  W. J., Sibley,  L. B., and Zaretsky,  E. V., 1963, “The Role of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication in Rolling-Contact Fatigue,” J. Basic Eng., 85, pp. 439–450.
Townsend, D. P., and Shimski, J., 1991, “Evaluation of Advanced Lubricants for Aircraft Applications Using Gear Surface Fatigue Tests,” NASA TM-104336.
Townsend, D. P., and Shimski, J., 1994, “Evaluation of the EHL Film Thickness and Extreme Pressure Additives on Gear Surface Fatigue Life,” NASA TM-106663.
Tanaka, S., Ishibashi, A., and Ezoe, S., 1984, “Appreciable Increases in Surface Durability of Gear Pairs With Mirror-Like Finish,” ASME Publication 84-DET-223, ASME, New York, NY.
Ishibashi, A., Ezoe, S., and Tanaka, S., 1984, “Mirror Finishing of Tooth Surfaces Using a Trial Gear Grinder With Cubic-Born-Nitride Wheel,” ASME Publication 84-DET-153, ASME, New York, NY.
Nakatsuji,  T., Mori,  A., and Shimotsuma,  Y., 1995, “Pitting Durability of Electrolytically Polished Medium Carbon Steel Gears,” Tribol. Trans., 38, No 2, pp. 223–232.
Nakatsuji,  T., and Mori,  A., 1999, “Pitting Durability of Electrolytically Polished Medium Carbon Steel Gears—Succeeding Report,” Tribol. Trans., 42, No 2, pp. 393–400.
Hoyashita, S., Hashimoto, M., and Seto, K., 1998, “Basic Studies on Fatigue Strength of Case-Hardened Gear Steel—Effects of Shot Peening and/or Barrelling Processes,” AGMA Publication 98FTM3.
Hashimoto, M., Hoyashita, S., and Iwata, J., 1998, “Studies on Improvement of Surface Durability of Case-Carburized Steel Gear—Effects of Surface Finish Processes upon Oil Film Formation,” AGMA Publication 98FTM9.
Patching,  M. J., Kweh,  C. C., Evans,  H. P., and Snidle,  R. W., 1995, “Conditions for Scuffing Failure of Ground and Superfinished Steel Disks at High Sliding Speeds Using a Gas Turbine Engine Oil,” ASME J. Tribol., 117, No 3, pp. 482–489.
Townsend, D. P., Chevalier, J. L., and Zaretsky, E. V., 1973, “Pitting Fatigue Characteristics of AISI M-50 and Super Nitralloy Spur Gears,” NASA TN D-7261.
Snidle, R. W., Evans, H. P., and Alanou, M. P., 1997, “The Effect of Superfinishing on Gear Tooth Profile,” AD-A327916, Defense Technical Information Center, Ft. Belvoir, VA. Also available from NASA Scientific and Technical Information Center, http://www.sti.nasa.gov/ accessed October 3, 2000.
Present, D. L., Newman, F. M., Tyler, J. C., and Cuellar, J. P., 1983, “Advanced Chemical Characterization and Physical Properties of Eleven Lubricants,” NASA CR-168187.
Anderson, N. E., Lowenthal, S. H., and Black, J. D., 1984, “An Analytical Method to Predict Efficiency of Aircraft Gearboxes,” NASA TM-83716 (AIAA Paper 84-1500).
Anderson, N. E., and Lowenthal, S. H., 1980, “Spur-Gear-System at Part and Full Load,” NASA TP-1622.
Johnson, L. G., 1964, The Statistical Treatment of Fatigue Experiments, Elsevier Publishing Co., New York, NY.
Townsend, D. P., and Zaretsky, E. V., 1985, “Effect of Five Lubricants on Life of AISI 9310 Spur Gears,” NASA TP-2419.
Scibbe, H. W., Townsend, D. P., and Aron, P. R., 1984, “Effect of Lubricant Extreme-Pressure Additives on Surface Fatigue Life of AISI 9310 Spur Gears,” NASA TP-2408.
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Townsend, D. P., 1982, “Effect of Shot Peening on Surface Fatigue Life of Carburized and Hardened AISI 9310 Spur Gears,” NASA TP-2047.
Townsend, D. P., Turza, A., and Chaplin, M., 1995, “The Surface Fatigue Life of Contour Induction Hardened AISI 1552 Gears,” NASA TM-107017.
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Figures

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NASA Glenn Research Center gear fatigue test apparatus: (a) cutaway view; (b) schematic view.
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Microphotographs of the gears prepared with 3 percent nital etch: (a) core of superfinished gear; (b) case of superfinished gear; (c) core of ground gear (from Ref. 4); and (d) case of ground gear (from Ref. 4).
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Material hardness versus depth below the pitch radius surface: (a) superfinished gear; (b) ground gear.
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Near-mirror quality of superfinished tooth surface
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Typical relocated surface features measured using a profilometer followed by filtering of the data using a 0.08 mm (0.003 in.) cutoff. Evidence of persistence of the deepest grinding marks are indicated by arrows: (a) ground tooth surface, Ra=0.434 μm (17 μin.) (b) same tooth surface after the first stage of superfinishing, Ra=0.083 μm (3.3 μin.); (c) same tooth after second (final) stage of superfinishing, Ra=0.056 μm (2.23 μin.).
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Comparison of gear tooth surface topographies as measured using a mapping interferometric microscope: (a) ground gear tooth; (b) superfinished gear tooth.
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Typical fatigue damage: (a) ground gear from study of Ref. 4; (b) superfinished gear of present study.
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Surface fatigue lives of ground and superfinished AISI 9310 gear pairs: (a) ground gears of Ref. 4; (b) superfinished gears; (c) summary of linear least-square fit lines; and (d) linear least-squares-fit lines plotted on linear axes.

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