0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Properties of Carbon, Chromium, and Titanium Carbide Ultrathin Films

[+] Author and Article Information
W. Lu, K. Komvopoulos

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

J. Tribol 123(4), 717-724 (Jul 25, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1330737 History: Received February 09, 2000; Revised July 25, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Moody, N. R., Gerberich, W. W., Burnham, N., and Baker, S. P., 1998, Fundamentals of Nanoindentation and Nanotribology, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 522 , Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA.
Oliver,  W. C., and Pharr,  G. M., 1992, “An Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments,” J. Mater. Res., 7, pp. 1564–1583.
Page,  T. F., Riester,  L., and Hainsworth,  S. V., 1998, “The Plasticity Response of 6H-SiC and Related Isostructural Materials to Nanoindentation: Slip vs. Densification,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 522, pp. 113–118.
Corcoran,  S. G., Colton,  R. J., Lilleodden,  E. T., and Gerberich,  W. W., 1997, “Anomalous Plastic Deformation at Surfaces: Nanoindentation of Gold Single Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, 55, pp. R16057–R16060.
Asif,  S. A. S., and Pethica,  J. B., 1997, “Nanoindentation Creep of Single-Crystal Tungsten and Gallium Arsenide,” Philos. Mag. A, 76, pp. 1105–1118.
Page,  T. F., Oliver,  W. C., and McHargue,  C. J., 1992, “The Deformation Behavior of Ceramic Crystals Subjected to Very Low Load (Nano)indentations,” J. Mater. Res., 7, pp. 450–473.
Wei,  B., and Komvopoulos,  K., 1996, “Nanoscale Indentation Hardness and Wear Characterization of Hydrogenated Carbon Thin Films,” ASME J. Tribol., 118, pp. 431–438.
Wei,  B., and Komvopoulos,  K., 1997, “Friction and Wear Micromechanisms of Amorphous Carbon Thin Films,” ASME J. Tribol., 119, pp. 823–829.
Schwarz,  U. D., Zwörner,  O., Köster,  P., and Wiesendanger,  R., 1997, “Quantitative Analysis of the Frictional Properties of Solid Materials at Low Loads. I. Carbon Compounds,” Phys. Rev. B, 56, pp. 6987–6996.
Mosch,  S., Grau,  P., and Berg,  G., 1998, “Nanotribological Measurements of Sol-Gel Derived Silica Films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 522, pp. 415–420.
Yokohata,  T., Kato,  K., Miyamoto,  T., and Kaneko,  R., 1998, “Load-Dependency of Friction Coefficient Between Silicon-Oxides and Diamond Under Ultra-Low Contact Load,” ASME J. Tribol., 120, pp. 503–509.
Lu,  W., and Komvopoulos,  K., 1999, “Microstructure and Nanomechanical Properties of Nitrogenated Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Synthesized by Reactive Radio Frequency Sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys., 85, pp. 2642–2651.
Schiffmann,  K., 1988, “Microwear Experiments on Metal-Containing Amorphous Hydrocarbon Hard Coatings by AFM: Wear Mechanisms and Models for the Load and Time Dependence,” Wear, 216, pp. 27–34.
Jiang,  Z., Lu,  C.-J., Bogy,  D. B., and Miyamoto,  T., 1995, “An Investigation of the Experimental Conditions and Characteristics of a Nano-Wear Test,” Wear, 181–183, pp. 777–783.
Schmid,  S. R., Hector,  L. G., Elings,  J., Hampel,  H., and Piehler,  H., 1998, “Single Asperity Plowing of Metallic and Polymeric Surfaces in an Atomic Force Microscope: An Overview of Recent Developments,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 522, pp. 391–397.
Day,  R. D., Dickerson,  R. M., and Russell,  P. E., 1998, “Stain Hardening of FCC Metal Surfaces Induced by Microploughing,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 522, pp. 421–426.
Kato,  K., 1990, “Tribology of Ceramics,” Wear, 136, pp. 117–133.
Enachescu,  M., van den Oetelaar,  R. J. A., Carpick,  R. W., Ogletree,  D. F., Flipse,  C. F. J., and Salmeron,  M., 1998, “Atomic Force Microscopy Study of an Ideally Hard Contact: The Diamond (111)/Tungsten Carbide Interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, pp. 1877–1880.
Jiang,  Z., Lu,  C.-J., Bogy,  D. B., and Miyamoto,  T., 1995, “Dependence of Nano-Friction and Nano-Wear on Loading Force for Sharp Diamond Tips Sliding on Si, Mn-Zn Ferrite, and Au,” ASME J. Tribol., 117, pp. 328–333.
Khurshudov,  A., and Kato,  K., 1997, “Wear Mechanisms in Reciprocal Scratching of Polycarbonate, Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy,” Wear, 205, pp. 1–10.
Lu,  W., and Komvopoulos,  K., 2001, “Nanotribological and Nanomechanical Properties of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Synthesized by Radio Frequency Sputtering,” ASME J. Tribol., 123, pp. 641–650.
Lu,  W., and Komvopoulos,  K., 1999, “Dependence of Growth and Nanomechanical Properties of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films on Radio Frequency Sputtering Conditions,” J. Appl. Phys., 86, pp. 2268–2277.
Lu, W., and Komvopoulos, K., 2001, “X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Auger Electron Spectroscopy Analysis of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited on Si(100) by Radio Frequency Sputtering, J. Appl. Phys. (submitted).
Zergioti,  I., Fotakis,  C., and Haidemenopoulos,  G. N., 1997, “Growth of TiB2 and TiC Coatings Using Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Thin Solid Films, 303, pp. 39–46.
Zergioti,  I., and Haidemenopoulos,  G. N., 1997, “On the Nanocrystalline Structure of TiC and TiB2 Produced by Laser Ablation,” Nanostruct. Mater., 8, pp. 55–59.
Bailey, A. E., Gillham, E. J., Herington, E. F. G., and Rose, B., 1986, Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants, Longman, New York, NY.
Martin-Gil,  J., Martin-Gil,  F. J., Sarikaya,  M., Qian,  M., Jose-Yacaman,  M., and Rubio,  A., 1997, “Evidence of a Low Compressibility Carbon Nitride With Defect-Zincblende Structure,” J. Appl. Phys., 81, pp. 2555–2559.
Cheng,  Y.-T., and Cheng,  C.-M., 1998, “Relationships Between Hardness, Elastic Modulus, and the Work of Indentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 73, pp. 614–616.
Johnson, K. L., 1985, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Meinhard,  H., Grau,  P., Berg,  G., and Mosch,  S., 1997, “Hardness and Flow Behaviour of Glass in the Nanometre Range—An Interpretation of the Load Dependence of the Hardness,” Glass Sci. Technol., 70, pp. 333–339.
Lu,  W., and Komvopoulos,  K., 2000, “Implanted Argon Atoms as Sensing Probes of Residual Stress in Ultrathin Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 76, pp. 3206–3208.
Komvopoulos,  K., Saka,  N., and Suh,  N. P., 1985, “The Mechanism of Friction in Boundary Lubrication,” ASME J. Tribol., 107, pp. 452–462.
Komvopoulos,  K., Saka,  N., and Suh,  N. P., 1986, “Plowing Friction in Dry and Lubricated Metal Sliding,” ASME J. Tribol., 108, pp. 301–313.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Contact force versus displacement curves from nanoindentation experiments performed with a 20-nm-radius diamond tip and maximum contact force equal to 20 μN: (a) a-C, (b) TiC, (c) Cr, and (d) Si(100)
Grahic Jump Location
Coefficient of friction of bulk Si(100) versus sliding speed for different contact forces and diamond tip radius equal to (a) 100 nm and (b) 20 μm
Grahic Jump Location
Coefficient of friction of a-C, Cr, and TiC films and bulk Si(100) versus contact force for diamond tip radius of 20 μm and sliding speed of 0.4 μm/s
Grahic Jump Location
Nanoscratches on (a) a-C, (b) TiC, and (c) Cr film surfaces, and (d) Si(100) substrate surface produced with a 100- nm-radius diamond tip under a contact force of 40 μN (sliding speed: (a)–(c) 0.4 μm/s and (d) 0.05–0.8 μm/s)
Grahic Jump Location
Nanowear patterns on (a) a-C, (b) TiC, and (c) Cr film surfaces, and (d) Si(100) substrate surface produced with a 100-nm-radius diamond tip under a contact force of 10 μN after five scanning cycles at a sliding speed of 4 μm/s
Grahic Jump Location
Nanowear patterns on (a) a-C, (b) TiC, and (c) Cr film surfaces, and (d) Si(100) substrate surface produced with a 100-nm-radius diamond tip under a contact force of (a) 50 μN and (b)–(d) 40 μN after one scanning cycle at a sliding speed of 4 μm/s
Grahic Jump Location
Wear depth versus wear cycles for bulk Si(100), 100-nm-radius diamond tip, 4 μm/s sliding speed, and contact force in the range of 3–13 μN
Grahic Jump Location
Wear depth versus wear cycles for a-C, TiC, and Cr films, 100-nm-radius diamond tip, 4 μm/s sliding speed, and contact force equal to (a) 10 μN and (b) 40 μN
Grahic Jump Location
Relative specific energy versus wear depth for a-C, TiC, and Cr films, 100-nm-radius diamond tip, 4 μm/s sliding speed, and contact force equal to 40 μN

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In