0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

A New Approach to the Effect of EP Additive and Surface Roughness on the Pitting Fatigue of a Line-Contact System

[+] Author and Article Information
Chau Chang Chou, Jen Fin Lin

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan, ROC

J. Tribol 124(2), 245-258 (Mar 13, 2001) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1396344 History: Received July 12, 2000; Revised March 13, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Whitehouse, D. J., 1994, Handbook of Surface Metrology, IOP Publishing Ltd., pp. 836–838.
Smith,  J. O., and Liu,  C. K., 1953, “Stress Due to Tangential and Normal Loads on an Elastic Solid with Application to Some Contact Stress Problems,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., pp. 157–166.
Bailey,  D. M., and Sayles,  R. S., 1991, “Effect of Roughness and Sliding Friction on Contact Stresses,” ASME J. Tribol., 113, No 4, pp. 729–738.
Tallian,  T. E., Chiu,  Y. P., and Amerongen,  E. V., 1978, “Prediction of Traction and Microgeometry Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue Life,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 100, pp. 156–166.
Clarke,  T. M., Miller,  G. R., Keer,  L. M., and Cheng,  H. S., 1985, “The Role of Near Surface Inclusions in the Pitting of Gears,” ASLE Trans., 28, No 1, pp. 111–116.
Harris,  T. A., and Wedeven,  L. D., 1989, “Rolling Bearing Tribology—Past, Present and Future,” STLE Lubrication Engineering, 45, No 11, pp. 673–682.
Merwin, J. E., and Johnson, K. L., 1963, “An Analysis of Plastic Deformation in Rolling Contact,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 177 , No. 25, pp. 676–690.
Johnson, K. L., 1987, “Aspects of Contact Mechanics,” Proc. Int. Conf. On Tribology-Friction, Lubrication, and Wear, Fifty Years on, in Proc. of ImechE, C246187, pp. 919–923.
Welsh, N. C., 1957, “Structure Changes in Rubbed Steel Surfaces,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Conference on Lubrication and Wear, p. 701.
Bower,  A. F., and Johnson,  K. L., 1989, “The Influence of Strain Hardening on Cumulative Plastic Deformation in Rolling and Sliding Line Contact,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 37, No 4, pp. 471–493.
Tyfour,  W. R., and Beynon,  J. H., 1994, “The Effect of Rolling Direction Reversal on the Wear Mechanism of Pearlitic Rail Steel,” Tribol. Int., 27, No 6, pp. 401–412.
Tyfour,  W. R., Beynon,  J. H., and Kappor,  A., 1995, “The Steady State Wear Behavior of Pearlitic Rail Steel Under Dry Rolling-Sliding Contact Conditions,” Wear, 180, pp. 79–89.
Kapoor,  A., 1994, “A Re-Evaluation of the Life to Rupture of Ductile Metals by Cyclic Plastic Strain,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 17, No 2, pp. 201–219.
Su,  X., and Clayton,  P., 1996, “Surface-Initiated Rolling Contact Fatigue of Pearlite and Low Carbon Bainitic Steels,” Wear, 197, pp. 137–144.
Lunberg,  G., and Palmgren,  A., 1947, “Dynamic Capacity of Rolling Bearings,” Acta Polytech, Mech. Eng. Ser. 2, Royal Swedish Academy of Engineer, 1, No 3, p. 7.
Lunberg,  G., and Palmgren,  A., 1952, “Dynamic Capacity of Roller Bearings,” Acta Polytech, Mech. Eng. Ser. 2, Royal Swedish Academy of Engineer, 2, No 4, p. 96.
Tallian,  T., 1967, “On Competing Failure Modes in Rolling Contact,” ASLE Trans., 10, pp. 418–439.
Dawson,  P. H., 1965, “Further Experiments on the Effect of Metallic Contact on the Pitting of Lubricated Rolling Contacts,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 180, No 3B, pp. 95–100.
Soda,  N., and Yamamoto,  T., 1982, “Effect of Tangential Traction and Roughness on Crack Initiation/Propagation During Rolling Contact,” ASLE Trans., 25, No 2, pp. 198–206.
Berthe, D., 1974, Les effects hydrodynamiques sur la fatigue des surfaces dans les contacts Hertzien, Thesis No. 216, L’Université Claud Bernard, Lyon, France.
Jefferies,  J. A., and Johnson,  K. L., 1968, “Traction in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts: Sliding Friction between Lubricated Rollers,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 181, No 1, pp. 281–291.
Torrance,  A. A., Morgan,  J. E., and Wan,  G. T. Y., 1996, “An Additive’s Influence on the Pitting and Wear of Ball Bearing Steel,” Wear, 192, pp. 66–73.
Wang,  Y., Fernandez,  J. E., and Cuervo,  D. G., 1996, “Rolling-Contact Fatigue Lives of Steel AISI 52100 Balls with Eight Mineral and Synthetic Lubricants,” Wear, 196, pp. 110–119.
Fujita,  K., and Yoshida,  A., 1981, “Effect of Hardness Difference on the Surface Durability and Surface Failure of Steel Rollers,” Wear, 67, pp. 187–200.
Cheng,  W., Cheng,  H. S., Mura,  T., and Keer,  L. M., 1994, “Micromechanics Modeling of Crack Initiation Under Contact Fatigue,” ASME J. Tribol., 116, No 1, pp. 2–8.
Lin,  J. F., Chou,  C. C., and Chen,  S. T., 1996, “The Effect of Surface Chemistry in Lubrication on the Tribological Behavior of Steel Rollers under Rolling-Sliding Contacts,” Tribotest Journal, No. 2–3, pp. 205–234.
Chou,  C. C., and Lin,  J. F., 1997, “Tribological Effects of Roughness and Running-In on Oil-Lubricated Line Contacts,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., 211, pp. 209–222.
Johnson, K. L., and Jefferis, J. A., 1963, “Plastic Flow and Residual Stresses in Rolling and Sliding Contact,” Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers Symposium on Rolling Contact Fatigue, London, pp. 50–56.
Ludwik, P., 1909, Elemente der Technologischen Mechanik, Springer, Berlin.
Kim,  K., and Ludema,  K. C., 1995, “A Correlation Between Low Cycle Fatigue Properties and Scuffing Properties of 4340 Steel,” ASME J. Tribol., 117, No 4, pp. 617–621.
Cappella,  B., Baschieri,  P., Frediani,  C., Miccoli,  P., and Ascoli,  C., 1997, “Force-Distance Curves by AFM,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag., 16, March–April, pp. 58–65.
Johnson,  K. L., Kendall,  K., and Roberts,  A. D., 1971, “Surface Energy and the Contact of Elastic Solids,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 324, pp. 301–313.
Tolman,  R. C., 1949, J. Chem. Phys., 17, pp. 333.
Melrose,  J. C., 1968, “Thermodynamic Aspects of Capillarity,” Ind. Eng. Chem., 60, pp. 53–70.
Lin,  J. F., Chou,  C. C., and Chen,  S. T., 1999, “Models for Temperature-Kinetic Aspect of Friction and Wear in Oil Lubrication,” ASME J. Tribol., 121, No 4, pp. 774–786.
Hills,  D. A., and Ashelby,  D. W., 1980, “A Note on Shakedown,” Wear, 65, pp. 125–129.
Ying,  T. N., and Hsu,  S. M., 1997, “Effect of Friction on Surface Strain Distribution of Steel,” STLE Tribol. Trans. 40, No 3, pp. 429–435.
Chou, C. C., Lin, J. F., and Lin, R. T., 2000, “Surface Fatigue of a Line Contact System of Steel under Oil Lubrication,” Wear, submitted for review.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic view of the apparatus and arrangement of the principal working parts
Grahic Jump Location
Diagrammatic representation of the disk, dimensions given in millimeters
Grahic Jump Location
(a) The positions of three points, C, A, and F on driver’s contact surface: (b) the wear mechanisms of the contact surface corresponding to these three points (C, F: sliding induced transverse cracks; A: pure rolling induced longitudinal deformation).
Grahic Jump Location
A typical variation of oil temperature and friction coefficient acquired by the second kind of test for the smooth roller +1 vol. percent EP additive. The dash lines indicate the intermittent pauses.
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of crack length at various test time periods. The disk in contact with rough rollers was lubricated by two lubricants. The applied load is 1957.3 N and the rotational speed is 450 rpm. They are obtained through the first kind test.
Grahic Jump Location
Vickers hardness for the disk specimens of having the longest and shortest pitting lives. They were obtained by means of the second kind of test. The number on the top of each error bar indicates the pitting life. The applied load is 1957.3 N and the rotational speed is 450 rpm.
Grahic Jump Location
Hardness rises of the disk specimen varying with pitting life. Rollers of the same roughness were lubricated by two lubricants under the load of 1957.3 N and at the rotational speed of 450 rpm. They were obtained by undergoing the second kind of test.
Grahic Jump Location
Typical force-distance curve obtained in the use of an atomic force microscopy
Grahic Jump Location
The pull-off forces were measures by an AFM for the disk specimens of having four testing periods. They are obtained by employing the first kind of test.
Grahic Jump Location
Cracks shown in the disk specimens in contact with rough rollers, they were created using the base oil as lubricant. The test time is (a) 0.5 hour, (b) 3 hours, and (c) 5 hours. The applied load is 1957.3 N and the rotational speed is 450 rpm.
Grahic Jump Location
Cracks shown in the disk specimens in contact with rough rollers, they were produced using the base oil +1 vol. percent EP additive as lubricant. The test time is (a) 0.5 hour, (b) 3 hours, (c) 5 hours, and (d) 10 hours. The applied load is 1957.3 N and the rotational speed is 450 rpm.
Grahic Jump Location
Weibull plots for the fatigue life of the disk specimen, they are obtained for three sets of combinations in roller’s roughness and lubricating oil
Grahic Jump Location
Vickers harnesses measured at various depths beneath the contact surface of the disk specimen. These four samples are obtained of having the longest pitting life as shown in Fig. 6.
Grahic Jump Location
The crack angle exhibited at the elastic/plastic shakedown layer for the disk specimen in contact with the smooth rollers. The base oil +1 vol. percent EP additive was used as lubricant, it was operating under the load of 1957.3 N and the rotational speed of 450 rpm.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) High-magnification photographic montage, and (b) the corresponding schematic draft showing the ratchetting layer, the shakedown layer, and the elastic layer at subsurface zone etched with 3 percent nital. This disk specimen was lubricated by the base oil +1 vol.% EP additive, and in contact with rough rollers.
Grahic Jump Location
Branched cracks created in the disk specimen in contact with rough rollers, the base oil was used as the lubricant. The P0/k value is about 2.54.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In