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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fatigue Life and Traction Modeling of Continuously Variable Transmissions

[+] Author and Article Information
George K. Nikas

Tribology Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BX, England

J. Tribol 124(4), 689-698 (Sep 24, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1491976 History: Received December 11, 2001; Revised April 16, 2002; Online September 24, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Patterson, M., 1991, “Traction Drive Contact Optimization,” Proc. 17th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Tribology Series, 18 , Elsevier, pp. 295–300.
Ehret, P., Chevalier, F., Dowson, D., Taylor, C. M., Okamura, H., and Sano, T., 2000, “Traction in EHL Elliptical Contacts With Spin Conditions,” Proc. 26th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Tribology Series, 38 , Elsevier, pp. 71–83.
Zou,  Q., Huang,  C., and Wen,  S., 1999, “Elastohydrodynamic Film Thickness in Elliptical Contacts With Spinning and Rolling,” ASME J. Tribol., 121, pp. 686–692.
Dowson, D., and Higginson, G. R., 1966, Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication, The Fundamentals of Roller and Gear Lubrication, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Elsharkawy,  A. A., and Hamrock,  B. J., 1991, “Subsurface Stresses in Micro-EHL Line Contacts,” ASME J. Tribol., 113, pp. 645–656.
Bair,  S., and Winer,  W. O., 1979, “A Rheological Model for Elastohydrodynamic Contacts Based in Primary Laboratory Data,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 101, pp. 258–265.
Gecim,  B., and Winer,  W. O., 1980, “Lubricant Limiting Shear Stress Effect on EHD Film Thickness,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 102, pp. 213–220.
Johnson, K. L., 1985, Contact Mechanics, (reprint 1994), Cambridge University Press, London.
Sayles,  R. S., 1996, “Basic Principles of Rough Surface Contact Analysis Using Numerical Methods,” Tribol. Int., 29, pp. 639–650.
Press, W. H., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T., and Flannery, B. P., 1992, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York.
Nikas, G. K., 1999, “Theoretical Modelling of the Entrainment and Thermomechanical Effects of Contamination Particles in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts,” Ph.D. thesis, in the Imperial College & Science Museum library and in the Mech. Eng. Dept. Library, Imperial College, London, UK.
Ioannides,  E., and Harris,  T. A., 1985, “A New Fatigue Life Model for Rolling Bearings,” ASME J. Tribol., 107, pp. 367–377.
Lubrecht, A. A., Jacobson, B. O., and Ioannides, E., 1990, “Lundberg Palmgren Revisited,” Rolling Element Bearings—Towards the 21st Century, seminar organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (UK), November 16, 1990, pp. 17–20.
Tripp, J. H., and Ioannides, E., 1990, “Effects of Surface Roughness on Rolling Bearing Life,” Proc. Japan International Tribology Conference, Nagoya, Japan, pp. 797–802.
Nikas, G. K., 1999, “Development of a Contact Fatigue Model For Continuously Variable Transmissions,” Technical Report TOR-12/99 (Torotrak Project), Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Mech. Eng. Dept., Tribology Section, London, UK.
Hamrock, B. J., 1994, Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication, McGraw-Hill.
Newall, J. P., Nicolson, D. M., Lee, A. P., and Evans, S. P., 2002, “Development and Assessment of Traction Fluids for Use in Toroidal (IVT) Transmissions,” SAE 2002 World Congress, March 2002, Detroit, MI, USA, Session: Transmission & Driveline Systems Symposium (Part A)-IVT/CVT, Paper No. 02AC-82.
Anghel, V., 2002, private communication with the author about the results of the Mini Traction Machine (MTM rig) for the traction performance of Santotrac 50, Tribology Section, Mech. Eng. Dept., Imperial College, London, UK.
Chang,  L., 1992, “Traction in Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Rough Surfaces,” ASME J. Tribol., 114, pp. 186–191.
Evans, C. R., and Johnson, K. L., 1987, “The Influence of Surface Roughness on Elastohydrodynamic Traction,” Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE-England), 201 , pp. 145–150.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Basic geometry and kinematics of the toroidal CVT variator
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Flow chart of the model
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Effect of contact load (smooth contact; variable: P)
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of slide-roll ratio (smooth contact with p0=1.5 GPa; variable: ur)
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of ellipticity ratio (smooth contact; variable: ry,r)
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of surface roughness (p0=1.5 GPa)
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of traction fluid bulk temperature (smooth contact; p0=1.5 GPa)

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