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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Elastohydrodynamics and Mechanics of Rectangular Elastomeric Seals for Reciprocating Piston Rods

[+] Author and Article Information
George K. Nikas

Tribology Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BX, England

J. Tribol 125(1), 60-69 (Dec 31, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1506316 History: Received March 07, 2002; Revised June 26, 2002; Online December 31, 2002
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

White, C. M., and Denny, D. F., 1947, “The Sealing Mechanism of Flexible Packings,” Ministry of Supply, Scientific and Technical Memorandum No. 3/47, England.
Field,  G. J., and Nau,  B. S., 1975, “A Theoretical Study of the Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Reciprocating Rubber Seals,” ASLE Trans., 18, pp. 48–54.
Ruskell,  L. E. C., 1980, “A Rapidly Converging Theoretical Solution of the Elastohydrodynamic Problem for Rectangular Rubber Seals,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: Mech. Eng. Sci., 22, pp. 9–16.
Nau,  B. S., 1987, “The State of the Art of Rubber-Seal Technology,” Rubber Chem. Technol., 60, pp. 381–416.
Nau,  B. S., 1999, “An Historical Review of Studies of Polymeric Seals in Reciprocating Hydraulic Systems,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., 213, pp. 215–226.
Lawrie, J. M., and O’Donoghue, J. P., 1964, “The Mechanism of Lubrication in a Reciprocating Seal,” Proc. of the Second International Conference on Fluid Sealing, Cranfield, England, The British Hydromechanics Research Association (BHRA), Paper B6, pp. 69–80.
Dowson, D., and Swales, P. D., 1967, “An Elastohydrodynamic Approach to the Problem of the Reciprocating Seal,” Proc. of the Third International Conference on Fluid Sealing, Cambridge, England, The British Hydromechanics Research Association (BHRA), Paper F3, pp. 33–44.
Dowson, D., and Swales, P. D., 1969, “The Development of Elastohydrodynamic Conditions in a Reciprocating Seal,” Proc. of the Fourth International Conference on Fluid Sealing, Session 1, The British Hydromechanics Research Association (BHRA), pp. 2–10.
Field, G. J., and Nau, B. S., 1972, “An Experimental Study of Reciprocating Rubber Seals,” Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Symposium on Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication, Paper C5, pp. 29–36.
Müller, H. K., 1964, “Leakage and Friction of Flexible Packings at Reciprocating Motion With Special Consideration of Hydrodynamic Film Formation,” Proc. of the Second International Conference on Fluid Sealing, Cranfield, England, The British Hydromechanics Research Association (BHRA), Paper B2, pp. 13–28.
Nikas, G. K., 2001, “Determination of Polymeric Sealing Principles for End User High Reliability,” Technical Report DOW-08/01 (Dowty project), Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Mech. Eng. Dept., Tribology Section, London, UK.
Hamrock, B. J., 1994, Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication, McGraw-Hill.
Johnson, K. L., 1985, Contact Mechanics, (reprint 1994), Cambridge University Press, London and New York.

Figures

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Basic assembly of the seal (half section shown)
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Forces on an elementary block of the seal
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Flowchart of the model (some intermediate checks not shown)
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EHD pressure at the rod-seal contact (for perfectly smooth surfaces)
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Film thickness map at the rod-seal contact (for perfectly smooth surfaces)
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Seal normal elastic displacement ūseal at the rod-seal contact (for perfectly smooth surfaces)
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Rod normal elastic displacement ūz(rod) at the rod-seal contact (for perfectly smooth surfaces)
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Magnified view of the EHD pressure at the rod-seal contact for rough surfaces (Ra(rod)=0.20 μm,Ra(seal)=1.50 μm)
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Portion of the film thickness map at the rod-seal contact for rough surfaces (see also Fig. 8)
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Film contour maps (rough surfaces). Black areas indicate asperity contact.

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