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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Measurement of Temperature Field in Surface Grinding Using Infra-Red (IR) Imaging System

[+] Author and Article Information
Jihong Hwang, Sridhar Kompella, Srinivasan Chandrasekar

School of Industrial Engineering, 1287 GRIS

Thomas N. Farris

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering, 1282 GRIS, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907-1287

J. Tribol 125(2), 377-383 (Mar 19, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1537748 History: Received February 19, 2002; Revised July 30, 2002; Online March 19, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Littmann,  W. E., and Wulff,  J., 1955, “The Influence of the Grinding Process on the Structure of Hardened Steel,” Trans. ASM, 47, pp. 692–713.
Snoeys,  R., Maris,  M., and Peters,  J., 1978, “Thermally Induced Damage in Grinding,” CIRP Ann., 27(2), pp. 571–581.
Malkin, S., 1989, Grinding Technology: Theory and Applications of Machining with Abrasives, Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, UK.
Shaw, M. C., 1996, Principles of Abrasive Processing, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Outwater,  J. O., and Shaw,  M. C., 1952, “Surface Temperatures in Grinding,” Trans. ASME, 74, pp. 73–86.
Rowe,  W. B., Black,  S. C. E., Mills,  B., Qi,  H. S., and Morgan,  M. N., 1995, “Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer in Grinding,” CIRP Ann., 44(1), pp. 329–332.
Rowe,  W. B., Black,  S. C. E., Mills,  B., and Qi,  H. S., 1996, “Analysis of Grinding Temperatures by Energy Partitioning,” Proc. I. Mech E. B, 210(6), pp. 579–588.
Rowe,  W. B., Black,  S. C. E., Mills,  B., Morgan,  M. N., and Qi,  H. S., 1997, “Grinding Temperatures and Energy Partitioning,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 453, pp. 1083–1104.
Hebbar,  R. R., Chandrasekar,  S., and Farris,  T. N., 1992, “Ceramic Grinding Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 75(10), pp. 2742–2748.
Mayer,  J. E., and Shaw,  M. C., 1957, “Grinding Temperatures,” Lubr. Eng., 13, pp. 21–27.
Ueda,  T., Hosokawa,  A., and Yamamoto,  A., 1985, “Studies on Temperature of Abrasive Grains in Grinding—Applications of Infrared Pyrometer,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 107, pp. 127–133.
Chandrasekar,  S., Farris,  T. N., and Bhushan,  B., 1990, “Grinding Temperatures for Magnetic Ceramics and Steel,” ASME J. Tribol., 112(3), pp. 535–541.
Ueda,  T., Hosokawa,  A., and Yamamoto,  A., 1986, “Measurement of Grinding Temperature Using Infrared Radiation Pyrometer with Optical Fiber,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 108, pp. 247–251.
Ueda,  T., Yamada,  K., and Sugita,  T., 1992, “Measurement of Grinding Temperature of Ceramics Using Infrared Radiation Pyrometer with Optical Fiber,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 114, pp. 317–322.
Xu,  X., and Malkin,  S., 2001, “Comparison of Methods to Measure Grinding Temperatures,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123, pp. 191–195.
Boothroyd,  G., 1961, “Photographic Technique for the Determination of Metal Cutting Temperatures,” Br. J. Appl. Phys., 12, pp. 238–242.
Kops, L., and Hucke, L. M., 1974, “Simulated Thermal Deformation in Surface Grinding,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Production Engineering, Japan Society of Precision Engineering, pp. 683–688.
Sakagami,  T., Madhavan,  V., Harish,  G., Krishnamurthy,  K., Ju,  Y., Farris,  T. N., and Chandrasekar,  S., 1998, “Full-field IR Measurement of Subsurface Grinding Temperatures,” Proc. SPIE, 3361, pp. 234–245.
Kompella,  S., Farris,  T. N., and Chandrasekar,  S., 2001, “Techniques for Rapid Characterization of Grinding Wheel-Workpiece Combinations,” Proc. I. Mech E. B, 215(10), pp. 1385–1395.
Jaeger,  J. C., 1942, “Moving Sources of Heat and the Temperature at Sliding Contact,” J. Proc. R. Soc. N. S. W., 76, pp. 203–224.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the setup used for grinding temperature measurement. The imaging system is stationary while the workpiece moves through the area of interest (AOI).
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Calibration curves relating differential intensity (I) to temperature (T). Two replicates are shown as a measure of repeatability of the calibration procedure. The equation of the least-squares polynomial fit of the resultant calibration curve is also given in the figure.
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Differential intensity and temperature fields for constant depth grinding. The workpiece is moving to the right in the figure. Δd is the actual depth of cut or material removed; Δd=16.4 μm: (a) differential intensity; and (b) temperature.
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Line temperature profiles at different depths into the workpiece. The x-axis is parallel to the direction of grinding. Δd=16.4 μm.
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Evolution of workpiece temperature field during a single grinding pass in constant depth grinding. The times shown are from the start of the grinding pass. Δd=16.4 μm. The workpiece is moving to the right in the figure: (a) t=0.10 s from start of grinding; (b) t=0.30 s from start of grinding; and (c) t=0.50 s from start of grinding.
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Variation of maximum temperature (Tmax) with depth into the workpiece for taper and constant depth grinding. The profiles shown for constant depth grinding are derived from Fig. 5 with Tmax being the maximum value of the temperature at a given depth into the workpiece. The profiles correspond to depths of cut of Δd=16.4 μm (constant depth) and Δd=15.7 μm (taper).
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Sequence of workpiece temperature fields from a taper grinding test. Each frame in the sequence is measured at the specific depth of cut noted alongside the frame. Note the significant increase in workpiece temperature with increasing depth of cut. The workpiece is moving to the right in all of the frames: (a) Δd=7.7 μm; (b) Δd=10.8 μm; (c) Δd=13.8 μm; (d) Δd=16.3 μm; (e) Δd=20.0 μm; (f ) Δd=23.1 μm; (g) Δd=26.2 μm; (h) Δd=29.3 μm; and (i) Δd=31.8 μm.
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of maximum temperature with depth into the workpiece for different depths of cut. Each curve in the figure corresponds to a specific depth of cut in the taper grinding test with Tmax being the maximum value of the temperature at a given depth into the workpiece. The profiles shown in the figure are derived from the temperature fields shown in Fig. 7.
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Variation of maximum surface temperature with depth of cut for four replicate taper grinding tests. The smooth curve is a least-squares third-degree polynomial fit of the data. Note the excellent repeatability of the taper grinding test.
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Variation of normal and tangential forces with depth of cut (Δd) in a taper grinding experiment. The data represent a moving average of the measured force data.

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