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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Experimental and Theoretical Study of Instantaneous Engine Valve Train Friction

[+] Author and Article Information
Riaz A. Mufti, Martin Priest

Institute of Tribology, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK

J. Tribol 125(3), 628-637 (Jun 19, 2003) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1538189 History: Received March 27, 2002; Revised September 05, 2002; Online June 19, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Parker, D. A., and Adams, D. R., 1982, “Friction Losses in the Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine,” Tribology—Key to the Efficient Engine, Instn. Mech. Engrs., Conf. Pub. 1982-1, London, Paper C5/82, pp. 31–39.
Hoshi,  M., 1984, “Reducing Friction losses in Automobile Engines,” Tribol. Int., 17, pp. 185–189.
Rezrka, S. F., and Henein, N. A., 1984, “A New Approach to Evaluate Instan-taneous Friction and Its Components in Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Paper 840179.
Dowson, D., Harrison, P., and Taylor, C. M., 1986, “The Lubrication of Automotive Cams and Followers,” Mechanisms and Surface Distress, Proc. 12th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Butterworths, London, pp. 305–322.
Taylor, C. M., 1991, “Valve Train Lubrication Analysis,” Vehicle Tribology, Proc. 17th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 119–131.
Ball, W. F., Jackson, N. S., Pilley, A. D., and Porter, B. C., 1986, “The Friction of a 1.6 Liter Automotive Engine-Gasoline and Diesel,” SAE Paper 860418.
Baniasad, M. S. and Emes, M. R., 1998, “Design and Development of Method of Valve-Train Friction Measurement,” SAE Paper 980572.
Dowson, D., Taylor, C. M., and Zhu, G., 1989, “An Experimental Study of the Tribology of a Cam and Flat-faced follower,” 2nd Int. Conf., Combustion Engines—Reduction of Friction and Wear, Instn. Mech. Engrs. Conf. Pub., London, Paper C375/025, pp. 97–108.
Ball, A. D., 1988, “A Tribological Study of the Design and Performance of Automotive Cams,” Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, UK, pgs. 250.
Zhu, G., and Taylor, C. M., 2001, “Tribological Analysis and Design of a Modern Automobile Cam and Follower,” Engineering Research Series 7, Instn. Mech. Engrs., Professional Engineering Publishing, London.
Dickenson, A. N., 2000, “Engine Friction Modelling Considering Lubricant Tribological Characteristics,” Ph.D. thesis, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, UK, pgs. 232.
Dyson, A., and Naylor, H., 1960, “Application of the Flash Temperature Concept to Cam and Tappet Wear Problems,” Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., Automotive Div., 8 , pp. 255–280.
Hertz,  H., 1882, “On the Contact of Elastic Solids,” J. Reine Angew. Math., 92, pp. 156–171.
Dowson, D., and Higginson, G. R., 1977, Elastrohydrodynamic Lubrication, SI Edition, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Dowson, D., and Toyoda, S., 1979, “A Central Film Thickness Formula for Elastrohydrodynamic Line Contacts,” Elastohydrodynamics and Related Topics, Proc. 5th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Mechanical Engineering Publications, London, pp. 60–65.

Figures

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Camshaft Torque Measurement: (a) camshaft pulley torque transducer; and (b) female adapter for torque transducer calibration.
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Torque transducer calibration data
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Effect of belt tension on the torque transducers with zero applied torque
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Engine drive train layout
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Effect of digital filter (Butterworths) on raw data recorded at engine speed 2500 rpm ( – Filtered data, –Unfiltered data)
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Free body diagram of the cam follower arrangement 9
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(a), (b): Predicted minimum and central film thickness in the cam/follower interface and entraining velocity. (Oil temperature 80°C, engine speed 1500 rpm, SAE 0W/20 without friction modifier.)
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Experimental and predicted inlet camshaft friction torque averaged over the cam event only: (a) SAE 0W20 without friction modifier; and (b) SAE 0W20 with friction modifier.
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Instantaneous measured exhaust and inlet camshaft drive torque (– 800 rpm, [[dashed_line]]1500 rpm, [[dotted_line]] 2500 rpm)
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Experimental and predicted instantaneous coefficient of friction for the inlet camshaft. Oil temperature 60°C, 1500 rpm engine speed, SAE 0W20 without friction modifier
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Comparison of experimental and theoretical instantaneous inlet camshaft drive torque at oil temperature 40°C and 1500 engine rpm, SAE 0W20 with friction modifier
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Experimental instantaneous exhaust and inlet camshaft drive torque at 800, 1500, and 2500 rpm engine speed at temperatures of 95°C, 60°C and 40°C, SAE 0W20 without friction modifier (– 95°C, [[dashed_line]]60°C, [[dotted_line]] 40°C)

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