Experimental and Three-Dimensional Finite Element Study of Scratch Test of Polymers at Large Deformations

[+] Author and Article Information
J. L. Bucaille, E. Felder

Centre for Materials Forming, UMR 7635 du CNRS, Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06904 Sophia Antipolis, France

G. Hochstetter

Essilor International, 94106 Saint Maur des Fossés, France

J. Tribol 126(2), 372-379 (Apr 19, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1645535 History: Received August 29, 2002; Revised June 24, 2003; Online April 19, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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Geometrical parameters measured during a scratch test
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Experimental profile of the scratch groove of oa10 measured with the tip of the nanoindenter used as a profilometer 6 min and 90 min after the scratch test, v=2 μm/s,W=1 mN. The residual depth and the scratch width continue to decrease several minutes after the scratch test.
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Three-dimensional view of the mesh used for the simulation of scratch. The mesh box placed near the indenter tip contains small sized elements and moves with the indenter along the Y axis. The indenter is a cone of semiapical angle θ=30 deg with a tip radius of 600 nm.
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True stress-true strain curves of polycarbonate, CR39® and oa10, obtained by an inverse analysis in indentation by Bucaille 16 for ε̇=10−1 s−1. These results show that CR39® and oa10 have a larger strain hardening than polycarbonate.
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Normal forces of polycarbonate, CR39® and oa10 as a function of the penetration depth of the indenter. Comparison between experimental and numerical results of scratch tests.
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Depth dependence of scratch hardness of polycarbonate, CR39® and oa10 computed with a half disc of contact. Comparison between simulations and experiments of scratch tests. Error bars are due to the uncertainties in the experimental measurement of the scratch width.
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Apparent coefficient of friction of polycarbonate, CR39® and oa10 measured during scratch experiments and simulations as a function of the penetration depth
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Scratch profile computed in simulation in the plane x=0 for polycarbonate, CR39® and oa10, v=2 μm/s,h=500 nm. For polycarbonate a pile-up is created at the front of the indenter. For oa10, the material sinks-in and the elastic recovery at the back of the indenter is more than 50 percent.
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Top view of the contact area between the indenter and the material computed in simulation of scratch tests, h=500 nm,v=2 μm/s. For oa10, the elastic recovery at the back of the indenter is complete.
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Optical view of the residual groove of polycarbonate performed with the nanoindenter for W=0.98 mN and v=2 μm/s. During the indentation step (right side), polycarbonate sinks-in; during scratch test pile-ups are visible on the side of the groove and at the end of the groove.
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Scratch profile of polycarbonate computed in simulation for two different rheological behaviors introduced in the software. If von Mises stresses (σ=280 MPa) are saturated for plastic strains higher than 1.5, a chip is produced in front of the indenter.
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Ratio of the plastic strain to the elastic strain as a function of the plastic strain, for polycarbonate, CR39® and oa10, ε̇=10 s−1. For polycarbonate, plastic strains may be more than ten times higher than elastic strains, this explains the formation of piles-up.
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Maps of equivalent plastic strains computed in simulation of scratch and indentation tests for polycarbonate and CR39® , h=0.5 μm; indentation v/h=0.49 s−1; scratch v=0.2 μm/s. Plastic strains are higher during scratch tests than during indentation tests. The behavior of polycarbonate is more plastic than for CR39® : plastic strains are higher and a lateral pile-up is created (scratch).




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