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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Effect of Dent Size on the Pressure Distribution and Failure Location in Dry Point Frictionless Rolling Contacts

[+] Author and Article Information
M. B. Howell, C. A. Rubin, G. T. Hahn

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235

J. Tribol 126(3), 413-421 (Jun 28, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1692053 History: Received March 27, 2002; Revised May 07, 2003; Online June 28, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Lorosch, H. K., 1982, Influence of Load on the Magnitude of the Life Exponent for Roller Bearings, J. C. Hoo, ed., ASTM STP 771, pp. 275–292.
Bastias, P. C., Bhargava, V., Bower, A. P., Du, J., Gupta, V., Hahn, G. T., Kulkarni, S. M., Kumar, A. M., Leng, X., and Rubin, C. A., 1991, “Analysis Of Rolling Contact Spall Life In 440C Steel Bearing Rims,” Final Report NAS8-37764 for George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.
Tallian,  T. E., 1967, “On Competing Modes in Rolling Contact,” ASLE Trans., 10, pp. 418–439.
Lubrecht, A. A., Venner, C. H., Lane, S, Jacobsen, B. O., and Ioannides, E., 1990, Proc. Japan Int. Tribology Conf. (Nagoya) I (Japanese Society of Tribologists), pp. 185—90.
Lubrecht, A. A., Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., and Ioannides, E., 1992, “Analysis of the Influence of Indentations on Contact Life,” Proceedings of 18th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 173–181.
Gupta,  V., Bastias,  P. C., Hahn,  G. T., and Rubin,  C. A., 1995, “Influence of Indent Geometry on Repeated Two-Dimensional Rolling Contact,” ASME J. Tribol., 117, pp. 655–659.
Gupta,  V., Hahn,  G. T., Bastias,  P. C., and Rubin,  C. A., 1995, “Contribution of Surface Irregularities to Rolling Contact Plasticity in Bearing Steels,” ASME J. Tribol., 117, pp. 660–666.
McDowell, D. L., and Moyar, G. J., 1986, “A More Realistic Model of Nonlinear Material Response: Application to Elastic-Plastic Rolling Contact,” Second International Symposium on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, July 8–11, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.
McDowell,  D. L., 1985, “A Two Surface Theory for Non-Proportional Cyclic Plasticity, Part 1: Development of Appropriate Equations,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 52, pp. 298–302.
McDowell,  D. L., 1985, “A Two Surface Theory for Non-Proportional Cyclic Plasticity, Part 2: Comparison of Theory with Experiments,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 52, pp. 303–308.
Howell,  M. B., Hahn,  G. T., Rubin,  C. A., and McDowell,  D. L., 1994, “Finite Element Analysis of Rolling Contact for Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening Bearing Steel,” ASME J. Tribol., 117, pp. 729–736.
Dommarco,  R. C., Bastias,  P. C., Hahn,  G. T., and Rubin,  C. A., 2002, “The Use of Artificial Defects in the 5-Ball-Rod Rolling Contact Fatigue Experiments,” Wear, 252, pp. 430–437.
Armstrong, P. J., and Frederick, C. O., 1966, A Mathematical Representation of the Multiaxial Bauschinger Effect, CEGB Report RD/B/N731, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories.
Ohno,  N., and Wang,  J. D., 1993, “Kinematic Hardening Rules with Critical State of Dynamic Recovery, Part I: Formulation and Basic Features for ratchetting Behavior,” Int. J. Plast., 9, pp. 375–390.
McDowell,  D. L., 1995, “Stress State Dependence of Cyclic Ratchetting Behavior of Two Rail Steels,” Int. J. Plast., 11, pp. 397–421.
Howell, M. B., 2001, “Analysis of Repeated Pure Rolling Contact Over A Dent Defect With Nonlinear Kinematic-Hardening Material Behavior,” Ph.D. dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.
Hahn,  G. T., Bhargava,  V., and Chen,  Q., 1990, “The Cyclic Stress-Strain Properties, Hysteresis Loop Shape, and Kinematic Hardening of Two High Strength Bearing Steels,” Metall. Trans. A, 21A, pp. 653–665.
Glover, D., “A Ball-Rod Rolling Contact Fatigue Tester,” J. J. C. Hoo, ed., ASTM STP 771, pp. 107–124.
Cheng,  W., Cheng,  H. S., and Keer,  L. M., 1994, “Experimental Investigationon Rolling/Sliding Contact Fatigue Crack Initiation with Artificial Defects,” Tribol. Trans., 37, pp. 1–12.
Wedeven,  L. D., and Cusano,  C., 1979, “Elasohydrodynamic Film Thickness of Artificially Produced Surface Dents and Grooves,” ASLE Trans., 21(4), pp. 369–381.
Ai,  X., and Cheng,  H. S., 1994, “The Influence of Moving Dent on Point EHL Contacts,” STLE Tribol. Trans., 37(2), pp. 323–335.
Bhargava,  V., Hahn,  G. T., and Rubin,  C. A., 1990 July, “Rolling Contact Deformation, Etching Effects, and Failure of High-Strength Bearing Steel,” Metall. Trans. A, 21A, pp. 1990–1921.

Figures

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Half-space and rigid indenter used to produce the dents
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Details of the half-space and sphere counterface used to simulate contact
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Comparison of cyclic shear stress-shear strain hysteresis loops: (a) measured loop for AISI 52100 steel under cyclic torsion; and (b) calculated with the material model.
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Comparison of the relation between stress amplitude and plastic strain range for measured and the material model
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Comparison of measured and material model ratchetting behavior
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Ten ratchetting loops produced by the material model with a 1100 MPa mean stress
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Finite element model residual dent from a 5 μm downward indenter displacement comparison with an experimental residual dent from Rockwell C hardness test
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Residual dent deformation comparison for each of the dents
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Dent profile comparison between residual dent and residual after two contact simulations for each of the dents
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Pressure distributions for the first contact at maximum load across the dents
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Comparison of maximum in-plane principal stress contours at second contact peak pressure for each of the dents
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Maximum in-plane principal stress comparison between: (a) dent residual; and (b) residual after second contact for the largest dent
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Maximum in-plane principal stress vector comparison between: (a) elastic-plastic; and (b) elastic half-space material properties for the first contact residual
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Largest dent second contact residual: (a) hydrostatic pressure contours; and (b) plastic shear strain
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Scanning electron microscope spall top view and section profile (from Bastias 2)
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Relative positions between the nucleation site, initial diameter and apparent overrolled diameter (optical microscopy) and actual overrolled diameter (profilometer) for Rockwell C artificial defect (from Dommarco 12)

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