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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Granular Flow Lubrication: Continuum Modeling of Shear Behavior

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Fred Higgs

Mechanical Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890

John Tichy

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590

J. Tribol 126(3), 499-510 (Jun 28, 2004) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1691437 History: Received March 07, 2002; Revised July 24, 2003; Online June 28, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Yu,  C., Craig,  K., and Tichy,  J. A., 1994, “Granular Collision Lubrication,” J. Rheol., The Society of Rheology, Inc.
Higgs,  C. F., Heshmat,  C., and Heshmat,  H., 1999, “Comparative Evaluation of MoS2 and WS2 as Powder Lubricants in High Speed, Multi-Pad Journal Bearings,” ASME J. Tribol., 121, pp. 625–630.
Bagnold,  R., 1954, “Experiments on a Gravity-Free Dispersion of Large Solid Spheres in a Newtonian Fluid under Shear,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 225, pp. 45–63.
Haff,  P. K., 1983, “Grain Flow as a Fluid-Mechanical Phenomenon,” J. Fluid Mech., 134, pp. 401–430.
Hui,  K., Haff,  P. K., Ungar,  J. E., and Jackson,  R., 1984, “Boundary Conditions for High Shear Grain Flows,” J. Fluid Mech., 145, pp. 223–233.
Augenstein,  D. A., and Hogg,  R., 1978, “An Experimental Study of the Flow of Dry Powders Over Inclined Surfaces,” Powder Technol., 19, pp. 205.
Craig,  K., Buckholz,  R. H., and Domoto,  G., 1987, “Effect of Shear Surface Boundaries on Stress for Shearing Flow of Dry Metal Powders-An Experimental Study,” ASME J. Tribol., 109, pp. 232–237.
Sawyer,  W. G., and Tichy,  J., 2001, “Lubrication with Grain Flow: Continuum Theory, Particle Simulations, Comparison with Experiment,” accepted for publication in the ASME J. Tribol.
Campbell, C., and Zhang, Y., 1991, “The Interface Between Fluid-Like and Solid-Like Behavior in Granular Flows,” Advances in Micromechanics of Granular Materials, H. Shen et al., eds. Vol. 31, pp. 261–270.
Zhou,  L., and Khonsari,  M. M., 2000, “Flow Characteristics of a Powder Lubricant Sheared between Parallel Plates,” ASME J. Tribol., 122, pp. 147–154.
Elrod, H. G., 1988, “Granular Flow as a Tribological Mechanism—A First Look,” Interface Dynamics, Proc. of the Leeds-Lyon Conference, pp. 75.
Lun,  C. K., Savage,  S. B., Jeffrey,  D., and Chepurniy,  N., 1984, “Kinetic Theories for Granular Flow: Inelastic Particles in Couette Flow and Slightly Inelastic Particles in a General Flowfield,” J. Fluid Mech., 140, pp. 223–256.
Jenkins, J., 1987, “Rapid Flows of Granular Materials,” in Non-Classical Continuum Mechanics, Cambridge Press, pp. 213–225.
Jenkins,  J., and Richman,  M., 1986, “Boundary Conditions for Plane Flows of Smooth, Nearly Elastic, Circular Disks,” J. Fluid Mech., 171, pp. 53–69.
Yu,  C., and Tichy,  J. A., 1996, “Granular Collision Lubrication: Effect of Surface Roughness, Particle Size, Solid Fraction,” STLE Tribol. Trans., 39, pp. 537–546.
Heshmat, H., and Brewe, D. E., 1992, “On Some Experimental Rheological Aspects of Triboparticulates,” Elsevier Tribology Series 21, Ed. D. D. Dowson, T. H. Childs, M. Godet, and G. Dalmaz, eds., Amsterdam, pp. 357–367.
Johnson,  P. C., and Jackson,  R., 1987, “Frictional-Collisional Constitutive Relations for Granular Materials with Applications to Plane Shearing,” J. Fluid Mech., 176, pp. 67–93.
Chapra, S., and Canale, R., 1988, Numerical Methods for Engineers, McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY.

Figures

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Schematic of roughness factors. Roughness factors R are defined as (a) the fraction of lateral momentum imparted by the surface, and (b) the fraction of granular particles that fits between wall disks. The surface in the latter case is characterized as a flat wall with cylindrical disks.
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Variations of flow velocity with load (in Pa) across the nondimensional film coordinate y/H
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Variations of solid fraction with load (in Pa) across the nondimensional film coordinate y/H
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The effect of nominal shear rate on the mean solid fraction
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The effect of shear rate on the average shear stress at the top (y=H) surface
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The effect of load on the mean solid fraction
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The effect of load on the shear stress at the top (y=H) surface
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The effect of load on the slip velocity at the bottom surface
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Effect of the nominal shear rate on the shear stress for smooth surfaces (R=0.1)

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