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RESEARCH PAPERS

Hydrodynamic Performance of Gas Microbearings

[+] Author and Article Information
Daejong Kim, Sanghoon Lee, Michael D. Bryant, Frederick F. Ling

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712

J. Tribol 126(4), 711-718 (Nov 09, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1792676 History: Received September 17, 2003; Revised April 24, 2004; Online November 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Frechette, L. G., Jacobson, S. A., Enrich, F. F., Ghodssi, R., Khanna, R., Wong, C. W., Zhang, X., Breuer, K. S., Schmidt, M. A., and Epstein, A. H., 2001, “Demonstration of a Microfabricated High-Speed Turbine Supported on Gas Bearings,” Proc. Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head, NC.
Orr, D. J., 1999, Macro-Scale Investigation of High Speed Gas Bearings for MEMS Devices, PhD. Thesis, MIT, Cambridge.
Gad-el-Hak, M. 2001, The MEMS Handbook, CRC Press Boca Raton, FL, pp. 9–24.
Feiertag,  G., Ehrfeld,  W., Lehr,  H., Schmidt,  A., and Schmidt,  M., 1997, “Accuracy of Structure Transfer in Deep X-ray Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng., 35, pp. 557–560.
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Kim,  D., Lee,  S., Jin,  Y., Desta,  Y., Bryant,  M. D., and Goettert,  J., 2003, “Micro Gas Bearing Fabricated by Deep X-ray Lithography,” Microsys. Technol., in press.
Cameron, A., 1966, The Principles of Lubrication, Wiley, New York.
Fukui,  S., and Kaneko,  R., 1988, “Analysis of Ultra-Thin Gas Film Lubrication Based on Linearized Boltzman Equation: First Report-Derivation of Generalized Lubrication Equation Including Thermal Creep Flow,” ASME J. Tribol., 110, p. 253–262.
Kang, S. C., 1997, A Kinetic Theory Description for Molecular Lubrication, Ph.D. thesis, Carnegie Mellon University.
Burgdorfer,  A., 1959, “The Influence of the Molecular Mean Free Path on the Performance of Hydrodynamic Gas Lubricated Bearings,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 81, p. 94–100.
Patankar, S. V., 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Yum, K., 2002, Numerical Simulation of Micro Air-Lubricated Journal Bearings for 3-D Microactuators, MS thesis, Mech. Eng., UT-Austin.
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Pan, C. H. T., Kim, D., and Bryant, M. D., 2003, “Dynamic Analysis of the Long Plain Journal Bearing in the Nanotechnology Environment,” 2nd Int. Symp. on Stability Control of Rotating Machinery (ISCORMA-2), Gdansk, Poland.
Cheng,  H. S., and Pan,  C. H. T., 1965, “Stability Analysis of Gas-Lubricated, Self-Acting, Plain, Cylindrical, Journal Bearings of Finite Length, Using Galerkin’s Method,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 87(1), pp. 185–192.
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Figures

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Gas microbearing: (a) steps are exaggerated and overall diameter is 2 mm, (b) SEM images of overall bearing, (c) SEM images of 2 μm steps on journal bearings before processing thrust bearings
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Coordinate systems for analysis, where axial coordinate z is out of plane. Here, θR locates the first step with respect to a reference line (dashed), located along the journal eccentricity e_.
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Control volume (after Patankar 12)
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Static performance of gas journal microbearing (θR=5 deg for stepped bearing)
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Load parameters and attitude angles of stepped gas journal microbearing in high eccentricities (ε=0.8)
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Load capacity as a function of step height for thrust bearings
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Nondimensional rotational friction of gas microbearing (θR=5 deg for stepped journal bearings, step height 3 μm for thrust bearings)
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Simulated journal orbits: (a) Orbit A: Converging orbit from origin (stepped gas journal bearing, Λ=0.6, ε0=0.6, ω* =0.4, C=1 μm); Orbit B: Stabilizing motion of journal to (εXY)=(0.694,0.547) by small disturbance at (εX0Y0)=(0.8,0), with Λ=0.6, ω* =0.9. (b) Orbit C: Converging orbit Λ=2, ω* =1.5, ε0=0.8; Orbit D: Diverging orbit Λ=3, ω* =2.7, ε0=0.8.
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Stability chart of gas journal microbearing given as nondimensional threshold speed, ω*
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Motion of journal to (εXY)=(0.694,0.547) from origin for static loading corresponding to (εX0Y0)=(0.8,0) or (0.694,0.547), with Λ=0.6, ω* =0.9. The angle between external the load and the eccentricity vector becomes the attitude angle.
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Stability chart of gas journal microbearing given as the nondimensional threshold mass m*
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Static performance for stepped gas journal bearings with axial grooves (θR=0 deg)
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Load parameter and attitude angle for various step configurations without axial grooves (θR=0 deg, ε=0.6, and Λ=1)

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