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RESEARCH PAPERS

Mechanics of Loading for Electroplated Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) Wheels During Grinding of a Nickel-Based Superalloy in Water-Based Lubricating Fluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Frank C. Gift, Wojciech Z. Misiolek

Institute for Metal Forming (IMF) and Materials Science and Engineering Department, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015

Edwin Force

Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015

J. Tribol 126(4), 795-801 (Nov 09, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1760763 History: Received August 20, 2003; Revised March 10, 2004; Online November 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Hitchiner, M. P., 1999, “Technological Advances in Creep Feed Grinding of Aerospace Alloys With CBN,” Proceedings of the 3rd International Machining and Grinding Conference, SME, Cincinnati, OH, pp. 627–652.
Bush, J., 1993, “Advanced Plated CBN Grinding Technology,” Proceedings of the IDA Diamond & CBN Ultrahard Materials Symposium, Windsor, Canada.
Broskea,  T. J., 2001, “Analyzing PCBN Tool Wear,” Modern Machine Shop,pp. 86–93.
Malkin,  S., and Cook,  N. H., 1971, “The Wear of Grinding Wheels: Part 1,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 93(4), pp. 1120–1128.
Malkin,  S., and Cook,  N. H., 1971, “The Wear of Grinding Wheels: Part 2,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 93(4), pp. 1129–1133.
Shaw, M. C., 1996, Principles of Abrasive Processing, Oxford Series on Advanced Manufacturing, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Yossifon,  S., and Rubenstein,  C., 1982, “Wheel Wear When Grinding Workpieces Exhibiting High Adhesion,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 22(3), pp. 159–176.
Miyoshi,  K., and Buckley,  D. H., 1982, “Tribological Properties of Silicon Carbide in the Metal Removal Process,” Wear, 82, pp. 197–211.
Trent, E. M., and Wright, P. K., 2000, Metal Cutting, 4th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston.
Nagaraj,  A. P., and Chattopadhyay,  A. K., 1989, “On Some Aspects of Wheel Loading,” Wear, 135, pp. 41–52.
Caglar, M., Evans, R., Gift, F. C., Jr., Force, E. II, and Misiolek, W. Z., 2002, “Grinding Fluid Performance and Characterization of Wheel Wear,” Abrasives Magazine, pp. 10–17.
Carius, A. C., 1989, “Effects of Grinding Fluid Type and Delivery on CBN Wheel Performance,” in Modern Grinding Technology Conference, SME, Novi, MI.
Kumar,  K. V., and Shaw,  M. C., 1982, “Metal Transfer and Wear in Fine Grinding,” Wear, 82, pp. 257–270.
Yossifon,  S., and Rubenstein,  C., 1981, “The Grinding of Workpieces Exhibiting High Adhesion,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 103, pp. 144–155.
Srivistava,  A. K., Sri Ram,  K., and Lal,  G. K., 1988, “A Simple Analysis for Evaluating Grinding Wheel Loading,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 28(2), pp. 181–190.
Gift, F. C., Jr., 2003, “Analysis of Grinding Wheel Loading for Electroplated Cubic Boron Nitride Wheels Used With Water-Based Lubricating Fluids,” M.S. thesis, Lehigh University.
Chen,  X., Rowe,  W. B., and Cai,  R., 2002, “Precision Grinding Using CBN Wheels,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 42, pp. 585–593.

Figures

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Illustration of the layout of fluid delivery system and the grinding setup, where feed (f) and wheel rotation (v) are in opposite directions
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Optical profilometer surface map of a portion of a tested block, showing parallel grooves machined according to the parameters listed in Table 1
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Stereomicroscope image of a typical alloy deposit observed on the surface of the CBN grinding wheels tested in the water-based fluids
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(a) SEM image showing chip adhesion on the rake face and clearance face of a CBN grain (b) accompanying schematic to illustrate features in the image
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Images of serrated (shear-localized) morphology of the grinding chips obtained from the grinding fluid trials
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Intimate contact at the rake face of the abrasive grain, with a significant volume of material adhering to the clearance face
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Build-up at the rake face of the cutting CBN grain occurs as the deposit spreads across the clearance face of the abrasive and towards adjacent grains
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Trailing edge of the deposit is shown extended away from the clearance face, suspended rigidly above the wheel bond matrix. A grinding chip (circled) is observed protruding from this trailing edge.
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Adhering material flowing into the open space behind the cutting grain
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Deposit bulk is comprised of layered grinding chips adhering together to comprise the wheel loading mass
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As the deposit spreads to adjacent grains, adherence occurs on the top portion of the rake face. This represents the fraction of the CBN grain that is engaged in the material during chip formation.
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LOM view of cross-sectioned wheel deposits, showing retained presence of chip morphology in the deposit underbody. Deposit interaction with the bond matrix and lower-height abrasive grains is nominal; contact is primarily at the top portion of the CBN grain’s rake face (circled).
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Stereomicroscope image of a loosely connected series of wheel deposits on the grinding wheel surface, appearing as one continuous deposit
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(a) Schematic view (magnified) of three CBN grains and how they might be oriented on the grinding wheel surface, with (b) schematic of grinding chip formation
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Illustration of the mechanics of wheel loading: (a) chip adhesion on the rake face, (b) capping the clearance face of the grain, (c) material flow into the gap with adjacent grain, (d) bridging to the adjacent grain, (e) build-up on the rake face and adjacent grains, and (f) large deposit formation resulting in deteriorated wheel performance

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