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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Scale Effect in Dry Friction During Multiple-Asperity Contact

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael Nosonovsky, Bharat Bhushan

Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 206 W 18th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1107

J. Tribol 127(1), 37-46 (Feb 07, 2005) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1829722 History: Received March 03, 2004; Revised June 03, 2004; Online February 07, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Bhushan, B., 1999, Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Bhushan, B., 2002, Introduction to Tribology, Wiley, New York.
Bhushan, B., 2004, Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.
Bhushan,  B., and Kulkarni,  A. V., 1996, “Effect of Normal Load on Microscale Friction Measurements,” Thin Solid Films, 278, pp. 49–56; 293, p. 333.
Bhushan, B., Liu, H., and Hsu, S. M., 2004, “Adhesion and Friction Studies of Silicon and Hydrophobic and Low Friction Films and Investigation of Scale Effects,” ASME J. Tribol., 126 , pp. 583–590.
Hurtado,  J., and Kim,  K.-S., 1999, “Scale Effect in Friction of Single-Asperity Contacts. I. From Concurrent Slip to Single-Dislocation-Assisted Slip. II. Multiple-Dislocations-Cooperated Slip,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 455, pp. 3363–3400.
Bhushan,  B., and Nosonovsky,  M., 2003, “Scale Effects in Friction Using Strain Gradient Plasticity and Dislocation-Assisted Sliding (Microslip),” Acta Mater., 51, pp. 4331–4345.
Bhushan,  B., and Nosonovsky,  M., 2004, “Comprehensive Model for Scale Effects in Friction Due to Adhesion and Two- and Three-Body Deformation (Plowing),” Acta Mater., 52, pp. 2461–2474.
Bhushan,  B., and Nosonovsky,  M., 2004, “Scale Effects in Dry and Wet Friction, Wear, and Interface Temperature,” Nanotechnology, 15, pp. 749–761.
Fleck,  N. A., Muller,  G. M., Ashby,  M. F., and Hutchinson,  J. W., 1994, “Strain Gradient Plasticity: Theory and Experiment,” Acta Metall. Mater., 42, pp. 475–487.
Nix,  W. D., and Gao,  H., 1998, “Indentation Size Effects in Crystalline Materials: A Law for Strain Gradient Plasticity,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 46, pp. 411–425.
Rabinowicz, E., 1995, Friction and Wear of Materials, 2nd Edition, Wiley, NY.
Whitehouse,  D. J., and Archard,  J. F., 1970, “The Properties of Random Surfaces of Significance in Their Contact,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 316, pp. 97–121.
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Bhushan, B., and Gupta, B. K., 1997, Handbook of Tribology: Materials, Coatings, and Surface Treatments, Krieger, Malabar, FL (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991).
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Figures

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Roughness parameters as a function of scan size for a glass-ceramic disk measured using AFM 2
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Scale length dependence of normalized contact parameters (m=0.5,n=0.2) (a) real area of contact (b) number of contacts, and (c) mean contact radius
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Dependence of the normalized long wavelength limit for contact parameters on load (normalized apparent pressure) for elastic and plastic contacts (m=0.5,n=0.2)
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Normalized results for the adhesional component of the coefficient of friction, as a function of scale for scale independent (Ls=0) and scale dependent (Ls=10Llc) shear strength (m=0.5,n=0.2) (a) Elastic contact (b) Plastic contact (Ld=10Ls=10Llc)
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Normalized results for the deformation component of the coefficient of dry friction (m=0.5,n=0.2)
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Normalized results for the ratchet component of the coefficient of friction, as a function of scale, for scale independent (Ls=0) and scale dependent (Ls=10Llc) shear strength (m=0.5,n=0.2), (a) elastic contact and (b) plastic contact (Ld=10Llc)
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The number of trapped particles divided by the total number of particles and three-body deformation component of the coefficient of dry friction, normalized by the macroscale value, for normal and log-normal distributions of debris size
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The transition index as a function of scale (m=0.5,n=0.2 and m=0.5,n=0.4), for scale independent (Ls=0) and scale dependent (Ls=10Llc) shear strength
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Coefficient of friction as a function of normal load 4

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