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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Wear and Surface Characterization of Boronized Pure Iron

[+] Author and Article Information
Pranay Asthana

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843

Hong Liang1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843hliang@tamu.edu

Metin Usta

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400, Turkey

A. H. Ucisik

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Bogazici University, Department of Prostheses, Materials, and Artificial Organs, 80815 Bebek/Istanbul, Turkey

1

Corresponding author.

J. Tribol 129(1), 1-10 (Oct 09, 2006) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2401211 History: Received March 28, 2006; Revised October 09, 2006

This research investigates the morphological nature and tribological behavior of boronized pure iron using experiments combined with theoretical analysis. Samples studied were 99.97% purity iron boronized for 4h at 800°C, 875°C and 950°C, respectively. Diffusion of the borided layer was analyzed by measuring the extent of penetration of the boride to sublayers as a function of boriding time and temperature. The distribution of alloying elements from surface to interior was determined by using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. It was found that boron concentrated in the layer and the diffusion of B atoms was deeper than the layer itself. In tribological tests, friction and wear behavior under dry rolling with sliding (pseudo-rolling) and dry pure sliding conditions was investigated. The wear experiments were conducted using a modified linear reciprocating tribometer. A scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope were used for worn surface characterization. It was found that boronizing at 875°C exhibited the best wear resistance among the samples tested. Higher wear resistance was correlated with growth of boride crystals along stronger (002) orientation. Surface grain size distribution after the boriding process was identified as an important factor for wear resistance. Different fracture and wear modes were investigated. Analysis of the wear debris gave an insight into the operative wear mechanisms. This research is beneficial in optimizing the parameters of the boronizing process to achieve better wear resistance under different contact modes.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Illustration of experimental setup for friction and wear testing

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Figure 2

SEM micrographs showing the tooth like columnar growth of Fe2B boride from Fe surface into the substrate in cross-sectional view: (a) 800°C, 4h; (b) 875°C, 4h; and (c) 950°C, 4h

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Figure 3

The average Fe2B layer thickness showing the range of growth of boride layer for 99.97% purity iron as a function of process time. (b) Thickness and iso-thickness diagram of boride layers for 99.97% purity iron as a function of process time.

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Figure 4

The average Fe2B layer showing the range of growth of boride layer for 99.97% purity iron as a function of process time

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Figure 5

X-ray diffraction pattern for the sample borided at 875°C showing only Fe2B phase

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Figure 6

Normalized x-ray relative intensity plot for samples borided at different temperatures

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Figure 7

SEM micrographs showing surface morphology of borided samples: (a) pure unborided Fe; (b) 800°C, 4h; (c) 875°C, 4h; and (d) 950°C, 4h

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Figure 8

The relative distribution of B and Fe from coated layer to interior for the sample borided at 875°C for 8h

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Figure 9

Typical friction trend for the borided samples at 800°C, 875°C, and 950°C

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Figure 10

Plot showing average static friction partner and sample wear rates for the samples borided at different temperatures under different conditions

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Figure 11

Wear track morphologies of the samples in sliding and pseudo-rolling contact modes obtained under SEM: (a) pure Fe; (b) 800°C, 4h; (c) 875°C, 4h; and (d) 950°C, 4h

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Figure 12

Atomic force microscopy scans showing worn surface morphologies of the samples borided at: (a) 800°C, 4h; (b) 875°C, 4h; and (c) 950°C, 4h

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