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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Simulation of Sliding Wear in Mixed Lubrication

[+] Author and Article Information
Dong Zhu, Bohdan Lisowsky

Innovation Center, Eaton Corporation, Southfield, MI

Ashlie Martini, Q. Jane Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

Wenzhong Wang, Yuanzhong Hu

State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

J. Tribol 129(3), 544-552 (Jan 08, 2007) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2736439 History: Received July 03, 2006; Revised January 08, 2007

Sliding wear is a significant surface failure mode in many mechanical components. The magnitude of changes in surface topography due to wear may be comparable to or larger than the original surface roughness and elastic deformation. However, wear has rarely been incorporated into the numerical models used as predictive tools in engineering practice. This paper presents a numerical approach to simulate the wear process based on the deterministic mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model developed and modified by Zhu and Hu (2001, Tribol. Trans., 44, pp. 383–398). It is assumed that wear takes place at locations where the surfaces are in direct contact, and the wear rate at those local contact spots is proportional to the relative sliding speed, the local contact pressure, and inversely proportional to the hardness of the surface. At each simulation cycle, the distributions of lubricant film thickness and contact pressure are calculated by using the mixed EHL model. The material removal at each contact location is evaluated and the surface topography modified correspondingly. The renewed surface topography is then used for the next cycle. The model is formulated such that any mathematically expressed wear law can be implemented, and therefore, the simulation can be applied to a wide variety of engineering applications.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Evolution of the disk wear track (left) and ball wear scar (right) over time. Ball image length scale is larger than that of the disk to facilitate visual analysis. Snapshots of the surfaces are shown without wear and at 1000, 2000, and 3000 cycles after the wear process begins.

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Figure 2

Evolution of the two ground surfaces moving at 3.75m∕s (left images) and 6.25m∕s (right image). Snapshots of the surfaces are shown without wear, and at 1000 and 2000 cycles after the onset of wear.

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Figure 3

Film thickness (top) and pressure (bottom) distributions for the sinusoidal surface contact case simulated with (right) and without (left) wear

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Figure 4

Film thickness (top) and pressure (bottom) distributions for the ground surface contact case simulated with (right) and without (left) wear

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Figure 5

Illustration of the shape change of the contact zone due to an established wear track

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Figure 6

Centerline subsurface stress distribution with (right) and without (left) wear for the ground surface contact case. Dimensionless centerline pressure and film thickness shown above the stress distribution for clarity.

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Figure 7

Film thickness (top) and pressure (bottom) distributions for the ball-on-disk contact case simulated with (right) and without (left) wear

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Figure 8

Centerline subsurface stress distribution with (right) and without (left) wear for the ball-on-disk case. Dimensionless centerline pressure and film thickness shown above the stress distribution for clarity.

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Figure 9

Wear volume as a function of time for the three contact simulation cases analyzed. Inset shows a close-up of trends observed at the onset of wear.

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Figure 10

Friction coefficients as a function of time after the introduction of wear (plots start at 500 cycles) for each simulated contact case

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Figure 11

Friction coefficient (solid line) and contact load ratio (squares) as functions of time for the ball-on-disk case illustrating the relationship between friction and contact area during the wear process

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Figure 12

Stepwise simulation approach with progressively integration of surface roughness and wear, and iterative determination of the wear coefficient

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Figure 13

Digital image of wear scar after 70 passes on a three-ball-on-disk instrument run at 300rpm and 300lbs

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