A method for treating the thermomechanical interaction of bodies that undergo relative oscillatory motion is developed. The approach utilizes a combination of the transfer matrix and the finite element methods. The thermomechanical coupling process between the contacting bodies involves a transient solution scheme where the frictional heat is automatically partitioned between the contacting surfaces. The coupling between thermal and mechanical interactions is treated iteratively. An application of the proposed model in the study of thermomechanical behavior of journal bearings with oscillatory motion undergoing thermally induced seizure is presented. The results of a wide range of operating parameters are presented. The significance of applied load, contact clearance, friction coefficient, oscillation parameters, convective heat transfer, and variable load direction condition in the thermally induced seizure is discussed in light of the numerical results.