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Research Papers: Friction & Wear

Tribological Behavior of Plasma Nitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti Austenitic Stainless Steel Under the Effect of Lubricant Additives

[+] Author and Article Information
Jian Fang

State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, P.R.C.; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, P.R.C.

Yanqiu Xia1

State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, P.R.C.xiayanqiu@yahoo.com

Yimin Lin

 Guangzhou Research Institute of Nonferrous Metals, Guangzhou 510650, P.R.C.

Weimin Liu

State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, P.R.C.

1

Corresponding author.

J. Tribol 131(3), 031603 (Jun 01, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3139055 History: Received November 21, 2008; Revised April 13, 2009; Published June 01, 2009

To expand the engineering application of stainless steel as tribological material, it is important to study the tribological interaction of the nitrided layer with lubricating additives. The friction and wear properties of plasma nitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel were investigated under lubricated conditions on an Optimol Schwinyung Reibung Versch oscillating friction and wear tester. The lubrication oil was 1,1,1-trihydroxymethylpropyl trioctoate containing zinc dibutyl dithiophosphate, bismuth dibutyl dithiophosphate, and bismuth N, N-dibutyldithiocarbamate as the antiwear and extreme pressure additives. The variations in the nitrided stainless steel and the unnitrided one under the tribological action of the additives were contrasted and the tribological chemical interaction between the nitrided layer and the additives was revealed. The results showed that the selected additives had good synergetic effect with the nitrided layer on tribological performance and the bismuth containing additive had better friction-reducing and antiwear abilities than the zinc containing additive. Meanwhile, under the effect of these additives, the N/(Fe+Cr) ratio rose and the Fe/Cr ratio decreased in the nitrided layer, while the Fe/Cr ratio in the unnitrided stainless steel varied little. Three main elements, N, Cr, and Fe, in nitrided layer had different actions with the additives and contributed to tribological performance by different methods.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Cross-sectional morphology of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel plasma nitrided at 520°C in NH3 for 4 h

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Figure 2

Cross-sectional hardness profile of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel after dc-pulsed plasma nitriding at 520°C in NH3 for 4 h

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Figure 3

XRD pattern for surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti before and after dc-pulsed plasma nitriding at 520°C in NH3 for 4 h

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Figure 4

Variations in friction coefficients with test loads. (a) Unnitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel/SAE 52100 steel pairs and (b) plasma nitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel/SAE 52100 steel pairs.

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Figure 5

Variations in the wear volumes of the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with test loads. (a) Unnitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel/SAE 52100 steel pairs and (b) plasma nitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel/SAE 52100 steel pairs.

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Figure 6

Variations in the wear scar diameter of the SAE 52100 steel balls with test loads. (a) Unnitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel/SAE 52100 steel pairs and (b) plasma nitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel/SAE 52100 steel pairs.

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Figure 7

SEM photographs of the worn surfaces of unnitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel lubricated with (a) TMPTO, (b) TMPTO-ZnDDP, (c) TMPTO-BiDDP, and (d) TMPTO-BiDTC at 250 N

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Figure 8

SEM photographs of the worn surfaces of nitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel lubricated with (a) TMPTO, (b) TMPTO-ZnDDP, (c) TMPTO-BiDDP, and (d) TMPTO-BiDTC at 250 N

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Figure 9

Wear track cross-sectional profile of nitrided layer under a normal load of 250 N

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Figure 10

(a)–(f) XPS spectra of the elements on the nitrided layer wear scar surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel lubricated with TMPTO-ZnDDP and (g) XPS spectra of the N on the nitrided layer surface after grinded by sand paper

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Figure 11

(a)–(e) XPS spectra of the elements on the substrate and wear scar surface of plasma nitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel lubricated with TMPTO-BiDDP

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