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Research Papers: Friction & Wear

Studies on Friction and Formation of Transfer Layer in HCP Metals

[+] Author and Article Information
Pradeep L. Menezes1

Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India

Kishore

Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India

Satish V. Kailas2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, Indiasatvk@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in

Michael R. Lovell

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201

1

Present address: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

2

Corresponding author.

J. Tribol 131(3), 031604 (Jun 02, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3142904 History: Received December 20, 2008; Revised April 27, 2009; Published June 02, 2009

Surface texture plays an important role in the frictional behavior and transfer layer formation of contacting surfaces. In the present investigation, basic experiments were conducted using an inclined pin-on-plate sliding apparatus to better understand the role of surface texture on the coefficient of friction and the formation of a transfer layer. In the experiments, soft HCP materials such as pure Mg and pure Zn were used for the pins and a hardened 080 M40 steel was used for the plate. Two surface parameters of the steel plates—roughness and texture—were varied in tests that were conducted at a sliding speed of 2 mm/s in ambient conditions under both dry and lubricated conditions. The morphologies of the worn surfaces of the pins and the formation of the transfer layer on the counter surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscope. In the experiments, the occurrence of stick-slip motion, the formation of a transfer layer, and the value of friction were recorded. With respect to the friction, both adhesion and plowing components were analyzed. Based on the experimental results, the effect of surface texture on the friction was attributed to differences in the amount of plowing. Both the plowing component of friction and the amplitude of stick-slip motion were determined to increase surface textures that promote plane strain conditions and decrease the textures that favor plane stress conditions.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

(a) Photograph of pin-on-plate sliding tester and (b) schematic diagram of pin on plate with inclined steel plate

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Figure 3

Variation in coefficient of friction with sliding distance when pure Mg pins slide against steel plates of different textures under (a) dry and (b) lubricated conditions

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Figure 4

Variation in coefficient of friction with sliding distance when pure Zn pins slide against steel plates of different textures under (a) dry and (b) lubricated conditions

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Figure 5

Variation in average coefficient of friction with surface texture

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Figure 6

Backscattered scanning electron micrographs of steel plates when Mg pins slide against different surface textures under ((a)–(d)) dry and ((e)–(h)) lubricated conditions with ((a) and (e)) U-PD, ((b) and (f)) 8-ground, ((c) and (g)) U-PL, and ((d) and (h)) random surface textures. The arrows indicate the sliding direction of the pin relative to the plate.

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Figure 7

Backscattered scanning electron micrographs of steel plates when Zn pins slide against different surface textures under ((a)–(d)) dry and ((e)–(h)) lubricated conditions with ((a) and (e)) U-PD, ((b) and (f)) 8-ground, ((c) and (g)) U-PL, and ((d) and (h)) random surface textures. The arrows indicate the sliding direction of the pin relative to the plate.

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Figure 8

SEM micrographs of Mg pin surface slid against steel plates of (a) U-PD, (b) 8-ground, (c) U-PL, and (d) random surface textures under dry condition. The arrows indicate the sliding direction of the plate relative to the pin.

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Figure 9

Variation in adhesion and plowing components of friction with surface texture

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Figure 10

Schematic of flow pattern of a soft material over (a) a hard cylinder and (b) spheres

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Figure 1

3D profile of the steel plates that are (a) unidirectionally ground, (b) 8-ground, and (c) randomly polished

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