Journal misalignment exists generally in journal bearings. When severe journal misalignment takes place, the minimum film thickness of journal bearings reduces greatly. In this condition, the surface roughness, the oil viscosity-pressure relationship (VPR), and the thermal effect have obvious effects on hydrodynamic lubrication performance of misaligned bearings. In this paper, the oil film pressure, oil film temperature, load-carrying capacity, end leakage flow rate, frictional coefficient, and misalignment moment of a journal bearing with different angles of journal misalignment and surface roughness, and considering oil VPR and thermal effect, were calculated based on the generalized Reynolds equation, energy equation, and solid heat conduction equation. The results show that the oil VPR and surface roughness have a significant effect on the lubrication of misaligned journal bearings under large eccentricity ratio. The thermal effect will affect obviously the lubrication of misaligned journal bearings when eccentricity ratio and angle of journal misalignment are all large. In the present design, the size of the journal bearing is compact more and more, and the eccentricity ratio and angle of journal misalignment are usually large in operating conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to take the effects of journal misalignment, surface roughness, oil VPR, and thermal effect into account in the design and analyses of journal bearings.