Galling is a severe form of mechanical surface damage, commonly observed in metals, that is accompanied by adhesive transfer, extensive plastic deformation, and/or cold-welding of the mating surfaces. It can lead to seizure or rapid failure of machine components. Stainless steels are particularly prone to galling. A new galling test and analysis method that reflects the statistical nature of galling is described. The new ASTM method (G196), which embodies a probabilistic approach to galling, is superior to an older ASTM test method (G98), which produces only a single threshold stress for a given combination of materials. A computer-modeled experiment involving a 300 series stainless steel is used to illustrate how the enhanced analysis can be applied to determine the repeatability of galling test results.