The internal load distribution in rolling bearings has a high impact on the bearing fatigue life. This study presents a method to optimize roller bearing housing design in order to maximize the bearing fatigue life by ensuring an optimal internal load distribution. An FE-model of a cylindrical roller bearing utilizing nonlinear springs in the roller modeling is presented, which is capable of simulating the bearing load distribution efficiently. The optimal load distribution is achieved by specifying the desired internal load distribution as design constraints in a topology optimization of the bearing housing design. The superiority of the method is clearly demonstrated through case studies involving a cylindrical roller bearing, where it is shown that the fatigue life is increased and the bearing housing mass and roller contact misalignment is reduced.