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Technical Briefs

Experimental Study on the Effect of Deforming Material and Speed on Friction and Lubrication by Tip Test

[+] Author and Article Information
Joseph S. Ajiboye1

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Gusongdong, Yusonggu, Daejeon, 305-701, Korea

1

Permanent address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

J. Tribol 134(2), 024501 (Mar 06, 2012) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005346 History: Received March 25, 2011; Accepted October 21, 2011; Published March 06, 2012; Online March 06, 2012

Choosing the proper metal forming lubricant for nonferrous metals such as aluminum, copper, and brass has become a difficult and complicated decision. The effects of deformation velocity and the influence of deforming material were determined in the two sets of experiments carried out using a single punch with a roughness magnitude Ra of 0.17 μm and four lubricants such as grease, corn oil, VG100, and VG32. In the first set, two different deformation speeds of 0.1 and 1 mm/s were used for cylindrical specimens made of aluminum alloys of 6061-O, 1050-O, and copper alloys tests using a counterpunch die of roughness magnitude Ra of 0.08 μm. In the second set of experiments, cylindrical specimens made of aluminum alloys of AA2024-O and AA6061-O and three deformation speeds of 0.1, 1, and 5 mm/s were used to evaluate the performance of each lubricant under increasing ram speed, but with a roughness magnitude Ra of 0.63 μm. All the lubricants show reduction in maximum load with increasing deformation speed except grease which shows a rise in the maximum load from zero to a maximum at a deformation speed of 1 mm/s and then descends gradually to a minimum load at a speed of 5 mm/s for AA2024-O and AA6061-O. This load reduction seen with grease as lubricant is probably due to thermal softening; therefore grease will not be considered a desirable lubricant under increasing deformation speed because of the adverse effects on the tooling. The present findings show that tip test can be utilized to select an appropriate lubricant for a particular alloy. It reveals that none of the tested lubricants can be used for copper alloy as all the lubricants show increasing measured load for increasing speed magnitude. However, of the liquid lubricants (corn oil, VG100, and VG32) considered, corn oil shows as the best lubricant for cold forging operations of aluminum 6061-O, 1050-O, and 2024-0 under increasing speed magnitude. Also, the tip test has been able to differentiate among materials.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of a tip test experimental setup

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Figure 2

Load versus punch stroke curves in the tip tests of copper alloys showing the effect of each lubricant on load

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Figure 3

Load versus punch stroke curves in the tip tests of AA1050 alloys showing the effect of each lubricant on load

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Figure 4

Load versus punch stroke curves in the tip tests of AA6061 alloy showing the effect of each lubricant on load

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Figure 5

Extrusion load-stroke curve for aluminum AA6061 showing deformation speed effect under different lubrication conditions

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Figure 6

Extrusion load-stroke curve for aluminum AA2024 showing deformation speed effect under different lubrication conditions

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Figure 7

Relation between extrusion load and speed in the backward can extrusion for the AA6061, showing the effect of deformation speed and lubrication characteristics

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Figure 8

Relation between extrusion load and speed in the backward can extrusion for the AA2024, showing the effect of deformation speed and lubrication characteristics

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