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Tribochemistry & Tribofilms

Following the Integration of Diamond Particles on the Lapping-Plate Surface: Towards a More Efficient Charging Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Rodrigo Mayén-Mondragón, José M. Yánez-Limón, Francisco Espinoza-Beltrán, Juan Muñoz-Saldaña, Alberto Herrera-Gómez, Ramón A. Vargas-Ortíz, Francisco Coronado

Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Alianza Norte 202,  Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica, Autop. Monterrey-Aeropuerto Km. 10 Apodaca, Nuevo León, 66600, MexicoCentro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla Querétaro, Querétaro, 76230 Mexico Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, Mexico, Carretera a El Castillo No. 2100 El Salto, Jalisco, 45680 Mexico

Rafael Ramírez-Bon1

Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Alianza Norte 202,  Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica, Autop. Monterrey-Aeropuerto Km. 10 Apodaca, Nuevo León, 66600, Mexicorrbon@qro.cinvestav.mxCentro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla Querétaro, Querétaro, 76230 Mexicorrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, Mexico, Carretera a El Castillo No. 2100 El Salto, Jalisco, 45680 Mexicorrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx

1

Corresponding author.

J. Tribol 134(4), 042301 (Aug 21, 2012) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006994 History: Received February 14, 2012; Revised May 01, 2012; Published August 21, 2012; Online August 21, 2012

Even when the charging of lapping plates can extensively influence their subsequent finishing performance, the subject has been scarcely treated in specialized literature. The present paper aims to help fill such a gap and gain a better insight of the charging process. A semiquantification of the diamond particles integrated into the lapping plate surface as a function of charging time was performed by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, together with a simple image-analysis procedure. The corresponding evolution of surface rough features was followed from atomic force micrographs with the aid of fractal-analysis tools. It was observed that charging proceeds in two stages, both with different rates of diamond particle integration. This leads to a significant waste of diamond slurry. During the first stage, the charging ring seems to preferentially promote a further flattening of the lapping-plate surface. Diamond particles are apparently more readily incorporated into such “flattened” regions during the second stage. The results suggest a specific topographic condition must be attained before the diamond can be efficiently integrated into the lapping plate surface. A lapping-plate preconditioning step could help improve this situation and reduce the amount of abrasive waste during charging.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Optical-microscopy image of a 90 min charged lapping-plate land (L) bounded by microgrooves (G). The comparative 4 × 4 spot region where Raman spectra were captured was overlaid.

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Figure 2

Raman-spectra set of a 90 min charged lapping plate showing the 1335 cm−1 distinctive peak of the F2g vibration modes in diamond

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Figure 3

Average area under the 1335 cm−1 Raman peak showing the relative increase in embedded diamond particles on the lapping plate surface as a function of charging time. The error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation. The behavior was approximated by a dose-response curve with variable hill slope (dashed).

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Figure 4

SEM micrographs (backscattered-electron mode) of (a) diamond-charged lapping-plate lands and (b) a closer view showing the embedded diamond particles (dark areas) on a land

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Figure 5

Image analysis of diamond-charged lands: (a) single land section extracted from a 300X SEM micrograph (45 min charge); (b) detected and isolated diamond spots; (c) optimized gray-scale histogram of the land. Dashed curve: domain occupied by diamond particles; continuous curve: domain occupied by the Sn/Sb alloy.

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Figure 6

Average land-surface fraction occupied by diamond particles at different charging times. The error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation. The behavior was approximated by a dose-response curve with variable hill slope (dashed).

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Figure 7

AFM micrographs of lapping-plate land regions at different charging times: (a) and (b) 1 min; (c) and (d) 70 min

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Figure 8

RMS-roughness of lapping-plate lands as a function of charging time. The error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation. The dashed line is the least-squares linear fit of the data with squared correlation coefficient (R2 ) of 0.50.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 9

Average fractal dimension of lapping-plate lands as a function of charging time. The dashed line is the least-squares linear fit of the data (R2  = 0.79). The error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation.

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