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Research Papers

The Role of Strain Rate Response on Tribological Behavior of Metals

[+] Author and Article Information
Pradeep L. Menezes

Department of Materials Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560 012, India;
Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: menezesp@uwm.edu

Kishore

Department of Materials Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560 012, India

Satish V. Kailas

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560 012, India

Michael R. Lovell

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
Milwaukee, WI 53201

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received June 17, 2011; final manuscript received August 10, 2012; published online December 20, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Shuangbiao (Jordan) Liu.

J. Tribol 135(1), 011601 (Dec 20, 2012) (7 pages) Paper No: TRIB-11-1112; doi: 10.1115/1.4007675 History: Received June 17, 2011; Revised August 10, 2012

In an effort to study the role of strain rate response on the tribological behavior of metals, room temperature experiments were conducted by sliding commercially pure titanium and a-iron pins against an H-11 die steel flats of various surface textures. The steel flat surface textures were specifically prepared to allow for imposing varying amounts of strain rates at the contacting interface during sliding motion. In the experiments, it was observed that titanium (a harder material than iron) formed a transfer layer on H-11 steel surface textures that produced higher strain rates. In contrast, the titanium pins abraded the steel surfaces that produced lower strain rates. The iron pins were found to abrade the H-11 steel surface regardless of the surface texture characteristics. This unique tribological behavior of titanium is likely due to the fact that titanium undergoes adiabatic shear banding at high strain rates, which creates pathways for lower resistance shear planes. These shear planes lead to fracture and transfer layer formation on the surface of the steel flat, which ultimately promotes a higher strain rate of deformation at the asperity level. Iron does not undergo adiabatic shear banding and thus more naturally abrades the surfaces. Overall, the results clear indicated that a materials strain rate response can be an important factor in controlling the tribological behavior of a plastically deforming material at the asperity level.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

3D profiles of steel flats that are (a) Uni-directionally ground, (b) 8-Ground and (c) Randomly polished

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the inclined pin-on-plate sliding tester

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Fig. 3

(a) Variation of forces and coefficient of friction with sliding distance for pure Ti (b) Variation in the coefficient of friction with sliding distance for differing roughness under dry and lubricated conditions. Here, sliding direction is perpendicular to unidirectional grinding marks. (c) Variation of average coefficient of friction and surface roughness (Ra) with surface texture for pure Ti and (d) Variation of average coefficient of friction and surface roughness (Ra) with surface texture for pure Fe. In panels (c) and (d), U-PD and U-PL represents sliding direction perpendicular and parallel to the unidirectional grinding marks, respectively. The error bars in the figures (c) and (d) indicate the maximum and minimum values of the friction for the five surface roughness values tested.

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Fig. 4

Scanning electron micrographs of steel flats with different textures for the case of (a) Ti and (b) Fe under dry and lubricated conditions. The arrows indicate the sliding direction of the pin relative to the flat.

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Fig. 5

Optical micrographs of Ti when compressed at the strain rates of (a) 100 s−1 and (b) 0.1 s−1 [17]

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Fig. 6

Optical micrographs of Fe when compressed at the strain rates of (a) 100 s−1 and (b) 0.01 s−1

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Fig. 7

3D profiles of steel flats tested using Ti pins ((a) and (b)) and Fe pins ((c) and (d)) under dry conditions

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