0
Research Papers: Tribochemistry & Tribofilms

Investigation of Protein Adsorption Mechanism and Biotribological Properties at Simulated Stem-Cement Interface

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongyu Zhang

e-mail: zhanghyu@tsinghua.edu.cn

Shanhua Qian

State Key Laboratory of Tribology,
Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing, 100084, China

Yongling Huang

Jinghang Biomedicine Engineering Division,
Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Material,
Beijing, 100095, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received November 25, 2011; final manuscript received November 8, 2012; published online April 29, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Zhong Min Jin.

J. Tribol 135(3), 032301 (Apr 29, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-11-1217; doi: 10.1115/1.4023802 History: Received November 25, 2011; Revised November 08, 2012

Debonding of the stem–cement interface occurs inevitably for almost all stem designs under physiological loading, and the wear debris generated at this interface is showing an increasing significance in contributing to the mechanical failure of cemented total hip replacements. However, the influence of protein adsorption onto the femoral stem and the bone cement surfaces has not been well taken into consideration across previous in vitro wear simulations. In the present study, the protein adsorption mechanism and biotribological properties at the stem-cement interface were investigated through a series of frictional tests using bone cements and femoral stems with two kinds of surface finishes, lubricated by calf serum at body temperature. The friction coefficient was dependent on the surface finish of the samples, with an initial much lower value obtained for the polished contacting pairs followed by a sudden increase in the friction coefficient with regard to the tests performed at higher frequencies. The friction coefficient did not change much during the tests for the glass-bead blasted contacting pairs. In addition, proteins from the calf serum were found to adsorb onto both the femoral stem and the bone cement surfaces, and the thickness of the physically adsorbed proteins on the polished metallic samples was more than 10 μm, which was measured using an optical interferometer and validated through a vertical scanning methodology based on Raman spectroscopy. An initial protein adsorption mechanism and biotribological properties at the stem-cement interface were examined in this study, and it suggested that wear at the stem-cement interface may be postponed or reduced by tailoring physicochemical properties of the femoral components to promote protein adsorption.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Williams, H. D. W., Browne, G., Gie, G. A., Ling, R.S.M., Timperley, A. J., and Wendover, N. A., 2002, “The Exeter Universal Cemented Femoral Component at 8 to 12 Years: A Study of the First 325 Hips,” J. Bone Jt. Surg. Br. Vol., 84, pp. 324–334. [CrossRef]
Herberts, P., and Malchau, H., 2000, “Long Term Registration has Improved the Quality of Hip Replacement: A Review of the Swedish THR Register Comparing 160,000 Cases,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 71, pp. 111–121. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Matsoukas, G., and Yong, K., II., 2009, “Design Optimization of a Total Hip Prosthesis for Wear Reduction,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131, pp. 051003. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H., Blunt, L., Jiang, X., Brown, L., Barrans, S., and Zhao, Y., 2008, “Review Article: Femoral Stem Wear in Cemented Total Hip Replacement,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H: J. Eng. Med., 222, pp. 583–592. [CrossRef]
Zant, N. P., Heaton-Adegbile, P., Hussell, J. G., and Tong, J., 2008, “In Vitro Fatigue Failure of Cemented Acetabular Replacements: A Hip Simulator Study,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 130, pp. 021019. [CrossRef]
Blunt, L., Zhang, H., Barrans, S., Jiang, X., and Brown, L., 2009, “What Results in Fretting Wear on Polished Femoral Stems,” Tribol. Int., 42, pp. 1605–1614. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H., Blunt, L., Jiang, X., Brown, L., and Barrans, S., 2011, “The Significance of the Micropores at the Stem-Cement Interface in Total Hip Replacement,” J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed., 22, pp. 845–856. [CrossRef]
Verdonschot, N., and Huiskes, R., 1997, “The Effects of Cement–Stem Debonding in THA on the Long Term Failure Probability of Cement,” J. Biomech., 30, pp. 795–802. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, H., Brown, L., and Blunt, L., 2008, “Static Shear Strength Between Polished Stem and Seven Commercial Acrylic Bone Cements,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med., 19, pp. 591–599. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, H., Brown, L., Blunt, L., Jiang, X., and Barrans, S., 2011, “The Contribution of the Micropores in Bone Cement Surface to Generation of Femoral Stem Wear in Total Hip Replacement,” Trib. Int., 44, pp. 1476–1482. [CrossRef]
Schmalzried, T. P., Zahiri, C. A., and Woolson, S. T., 2000, “The Significance of Stem–Cement Loosening of Grit-Blasted Femoral Components,” Orthopedics, 23, pp. 1157–1164. [PubMed]
Zhang, H., Brown, L., Blunt, L., and Barrans, S., 2008, “Influence of Femoral Stem Surface Finish on the Apparent Static Shear Strength at the Stem-Cement iInterface,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater, 1, pp. 96–104. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, H., Blunt, L., Jiang, X., Fleming, L., and Barrans, S., 2012, “The Influence of Bone Cement Type on Production of Fretting Wear on the Femoral Stem Surface,” Clin. Biomech., 27, pp. 666–672. [CrossRef]
Geringer, J., Forest, B., and Combrade, P., 2005, “Fretting-Corrosion of Materials Used as Orthopaedic Implants,” Wear, 259, pp. 943–951. [CrossRef]
Alfaro-Adrian, J., Gill, H. S., and Murray, D. W., 2001, “Should Total Hip Arthroplasty Femoral Components be Designed to Subside?” J. Arthroplasty, 16, pp. 598–606. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Widmer, M. R., Heuberger, M., Vörös, J., and Spencer, N. D., 2001, “Influence of Polymer Surface Chemistry on Frictional Properties Under Protein-Lubrication Conditions: Implication for Hip Implant Design,” Tribol. Lett., 10, pp. 111–116. [CrossRef]
Scholes, S. C., and Unsworth, A., 2006, “The Effect of Proteins on the Friction and Lubrication of Artificial Joints,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H: J. Eng. Med., 220, pp. 687–693. [CrossRef]
Serro, A. P., Gispert, M. P., Martins, M.C.L., Brogueira, P., Colaco, R., and Saramago, B., 2006, “Adsorption of Albumin on Prosthetic Materials: Implication for Tribological Behaviour,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part A, 78, pp. 581–589. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. M., Jin, Z. M., and Fisher, J., 2008, “Effect of Albumin Adsorption on Friction Between Artificial Joint Materials,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., 222, pp. 513–521. [CrossRef]
Jasty, M., Maloney, W. J., Bragdon, C. R., O'connor, D. O., Haire, T., and Harris, W. H., 1991, “The Initiation of Failure in Cemented Femoral Components of Hip Arthroplasties,” J. Bone Jt. Surg. Br., 73, pp. 551–558.
Cassin, G., Heinrich, E., and Spikes, H. A., 2001, “The Influence of Surface Roughness on the Lubrication Properties of Adsorbing and Non-Adsorbing Biopolymers,” Tribol. Lett., 11, pp. 95–102. [CrossRef]
Karuppiah, K. S. K., Sundararajan, S., Xu, Z. H., and Li, X. D., 2006, “The Effect of Protein Adsorption on the Friction Behaviour of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene,” Tribol. Lett., 22, pp. 181–188. [CrossRef]
Mavraki, A., and Cann, P. M., 2009, “Friction and Lubricant Film Thickness Measurements on Simulated Synovial Fluids,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., 223, pp. 325–335. [CrossRef]
Roba, M., Naka, M., Gautier, E., Spencer, N. D., and Crockett, R., 2009, “The Adsorption and Lubrication Behaviour of Synovial Fluid Proteins and Glycoproteins on the Bearing-Surface Materials of Hip Replacements,” Biomaterials, 30, pp. 2072–2078. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Brown, L., Zhang, H., Blunt, L., and Barrans, S., 2007, “Reproduction of Fretting Wear at the Stem-Cement Interface in Total Hip Replacement,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H: J. Eng. Med., 221, pp. 963–971. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H., Brown, L., Blunt, L., Jiang, X., and Barrans, S. M., 2009, “Understanding Initiation and Propagation of Fretting Wear on the Femoral Stem in Total Hip Replacement,” Wear, 266, pp. 566–569. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H., Brown, L., Barrans, S. M., Blunt, L., and Jiang, X., 2009, “Investigation of Relative Micromotion at the Stem–Cement Interface in Total Hip Replacement,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H: J. Eng. Med., 223, pp. 955–964. [CrossRef]
Wen, S. Z., and Huang, P., Principles of Tribology ( Wiley, New York, 2011).
Norman, T. L., Thyagarajan, G., Saligrama, V.C., Gruen, T. A., and Blaha, J. D., 2001, “Stem Surface Roughness Alters Creep Induced Subsidence and ‘Taper-Lock’ in a Cemented Femoral Hip Prosthesis,” J. Biomech., 34, pp. 1325–1333. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, H. Y., Luo, J. B., Zhou, M., Zhang, Y., and Huang, Y. L., 2013, “Biotribological Properties at the Stem-Cement Interface Lubricated with Different Media,” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, in press.
Brown, S. S., and Clarke, I.C., 2006, “A Review of Lubrication Conditions for Wear Simulation in Artificial Hip Replacements,” Tribology Transactions, 49, pp. 72–78. [CrossRef]
Gispert, M. P., Serro, A. P., Colaco, R., and Saramago, B., 2006, “Friction and Wear Mechanisms in Hip Prosthesis: Comparison of Joint Materials Behaviour in Several Lubricants,” Wear, 260, pp. 149–158. [CrossRef]
Crockett, R., Roba, M., Naka, M., Gasser, B., Delfosse, D., Frauchiger, V., and Spencer, N. D., 2009, “Friction, Lubrication, and Polymer Transfer Between UHMWPE and CoCrMo Hip Implant Materials: A Fluorescence Microscopy Study,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part A, 89, pp. 1011–1018. [CrossRef]
Nakanishi, K., Sakiyyama, T., and Imamura, K., 2001, “On the Adsorption of Proteins on Solid Surfaces, A Common but Very Complicated Phenomenon,” J. Biosci. Bioeng., 91, pp. 233–244. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hossain, M. M., and Gao, W., 2008, “How is the Surface Treatments Influence on the Roughness of Biocompatibility?” Artif. Organs., 22, pp. 144–157.
Pradier, C. M.Costa, D., Rubio, C., Compere, C., and Marcus, P., 2002, “Role of Salts on BSA Adsorption on Stainless Steel in Aqueous Solutions. I. FT-IRRAS and XPS Characterization,” Surf. Interface. Anal., 34, pp. 50–54. [CrossRef]
Haynes, C. A., and Norde, W., 1994, “Globular Proteins at Solid/Liquid Interfaces,” Colloids Surf., B., 2, pp. 517–566. [CrossRef]
Young, B. R., Pitt, W. G., and Copper, S. L., 1988, “Protein Adsorption on Polymeric Biomaterials. II. Adsorption Kinetics,” J. Colloid Interface. Sci., 125, pp. 246–260. [CrossRef]
Malmsten, M., 1995, “Ellipsometry Studies of the Effects of Surface Hydrophobicity on Protein Adsorption,” Colloid. Surf., B., 3, pp. 297–308. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Equipment for the tribological experiment between simulated femoral stem and bone cement with a ball-on-flat configuration and temperature control: (1) heating rod; (2) thermocouple; (3) metallic pin and bone cement disk immersed in calf serum

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The change of friction coefficient as a function of test duration for the four contacting pairs tested in the present study: (a) polished stainless steel 316L pin + smooth bone cement disk; (b) polished titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pin + smooth bone cement disk; (c) glass-bead blasted stainless steel 316L pin + rough bone cement disk and (d) glass-bead blasted titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pin + rough bone cement disk

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The relationship between friction coefficient and sliding distance for the polished stainless steel 316L and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pins contacting with the smooth bone cement disk, indicating the total sliding distance where a sudden increase in friction coefficient occurred

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

SEM micrographs demonstrating the contact area on the metallic samples following the tribological tests: (a) polished stainless steel 316L; (b) polished titanium alloy Ti6Al4V; (c) blasted stainless steel 316L and (d) blasted titanium alloy Ti6Al4V

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) The SEM micrograph with an increased magnification showing the contact area on the polished titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pin from the test performed at 3.0 Hz and (b) the associated EDX analysis confirming the presence of adsorbed proteins on the surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Characterization of the protein film adsorbed on the polished titanium alloy Ti6Al4V surface using Raman spectroscopy. The detection of amide III bands and amide I bands peaks could confirm the presence of protein film on the surface.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The thickness of adsorbed protein film measured by the microXAM-3D optical Interferometer: (a) polished stainless steel 316L pin tested at 3.0 Hz and (b) polished titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pin tested at 3.0 Hz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Optical microscopic graph showing the presence of adsorbed protein film covering the original cement surface (the smooth bone cement disk contacting with the stainless steel 316L pins) and (b) the Raman signals obtained from the original cement surface (area A) and the protein film (area B)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

SEM micrograph showing the contact area on the polished stainless steel 316L pin tested at 3.0 Hz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

SEM micrographs demonstrating the contact area on the metallic samples, blasted titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pin contact with rough bone cement disk (load: 0.98 N, frequency: 1.0 Hz, duration: an hour): (a) dry friction (with bone cement transfer film) and (b) lubricated by saline solution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Characterization of the thickness of the adsorbed protein film through a vertical scanning methodology using Raman spectroscopy, the sample was polished stainless steel 316L pin tested at 3.0 Hz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) The change of friction coefficient as a function of test duration for the contact between polished stainless steel 316L pin and smooth bone cement disk under fretting mechanism and (b) SEM micrograph showing the contact area on the polished stainless steel 316L pin with the adsorption of protein film on the surface

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In