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Research Papers: Applications

Whirl and Friction Characteristics of High Speed Floating Ring and Ball Bearing Turbochargers

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthew D. Brouwer

Research Assistant
e-mail: mbrouwe@purdue.edu

Farshid Sadeghi

Cummins Professor of Mechanical Engineering
e-mail: sadeghi@purdue.edu
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

Craig Lancaster

CEng, Rotor Systems Group Leader

Jamie Archer

Principal Engineer

James Donaldson

Product Engineer Cummins Turbo Technologies,
Huddersfield,
West Yorkshire HD1 6RA, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received October 3, 2012; final manuscript received May 22, 2013; published online June 24, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Daniel Nélias.

J. Tribol 135(4), 041102 (Jun 24, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-12-1168; doi: 10.1115/1.4024780 History: Received October 03, 2012; Revised May 22, 2013

The objective of this experimental investigation was to design and develop a high speed turbocharger test rig (TTR) in order to critically examine the whirl and frictional characteristics of floating ring and ball bearing turbochargers. In order to achieve the objective, a high speed TTR was designed and developed with the capability of reaching speeds in excess of 100,000 rpm and was equipped with speed and displacement sensors to obtain the necessary results for comparison between the two turbocharger models. The TTR was used to compare and contrast the whirl and friction characteristics of two identical turbochargers differing only by the support structure of the rotor system: one containing a floating ring bearing turbocharger (FRBT) and the other a ball bearing turbocharger (BBT). The TTR is driven by an industrial compressor powered by a six cylinder 14 liter diesel engine. This configuration closely resembles turbocharger operation with an actual engine and was able to operate in both nominal and extreme operating conditions. A pair of displacement sensors was installed to measure the whirl of the rotor near the end of the compressor. Whirl results indicated that the BBT was significantly more rigid and stable than the FRBT. Waterfall plots were used to compare the frequency response of the two turbochargers over the full range of operating speeds. The majority of motion for the BBT was the whirl of the synchronous excitation due to a negligible inherent imbalance with some larger motions caused by vibrational modes. The whirl of the FRBT consists of not only the synchronous motion but also subsynchronous motions as a result of oil film instabilities throughout the entire operating range of speeds. The TTR was also used to compare frictional losses within the bearings. A study of the run-down times after the pressurized air supply was removed indicated that the BBT has significantly lower frictional losses under all operating conditions tested.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Rotor-bearing system. The BBT uses a cartridge (cross section view of the cartridge shown) with a pair of angular contact ball bearings. The FRBT uses the floating rings to create two fluid films in series, one between the shaft and floating ring and the other between the floating ring and main housing.

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Fig. 3

Turbocharger assembly overview and gauges

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Fig. 4

Oil pressure adjustment and sensors. The turbocharger compressor outlet pipe has been removed for visual aid.

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Fig. 5

Normalized maximum radius of rotor motion over the range of operating speeds for the FRBT

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Fig. 6

3D waterfall plot of FRBT under the conditions of 4 bars oil inlet pressure at 100 °C

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Fig. 7

FRBT rotor motion comparing sub 1 and sub 2 for 4 bars oil inlet pressure at 100 °C

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Fig. 8

FRBT rotor motion illustrating when the synchronous frequency was an integer multiple of the subsynchronous frequency under the conditions of 4 bars oil inlet pressure at 100 °C

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Fig. 9

Normalized maximum radius of rotor motion over the range of operating speeds for the BBT

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Fig. 10

3D waterfall plot of BBT under the conditions of 4 bars oil inlet pressure at 100 °C

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Fig. 11

BBT rotor motion at 50 krpm under the conditions of 4 bars oil inlet pressure at 100 °C

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Fig. 12

Deceleration response of FRBT and BBT

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