0
Research Papers: Lubricants

Tribochemistry on Clutch Friction Material Lubricated by Automatic Transmission Fluids and the Link to Frictional Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Anne Neville

School of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Leeds,
Woodhouse Lane,
Leeds LS2 9JT, UK

Richard Vickerman

The Lubrizol Corporation,
29400 Lakeland Boulevard,
Wickliffe, OH 44092-2298

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received April 13, 2012; final manuscript received August 29, 2012; published online June 27, 2013. Assoc. Editor: George K. Nikas.

J. Tribol 135(4), 041801 (Jun 27, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-12-1055; doi: 10.1115/1.4024375 History: Received April 13, 2012; Revised August 29, 2012

Automatic transmissions (AT) for passenger cars are becoming more popular globally, including some countries that traditionally prefer manual transmissions. Some new friction modifiers for transmission fluid technologies have also emerged due to the downsizing trend of transmissions. In order to study the tribology and tribochemistry effects of some new automatic transmission fluid (ATF) additive formulations, both steel and wet-clutch friction materials were assessed by using surface analysis techniques. A variable speed friction test (VSFT) rig was used to study the antishudder properties in lock-up clutch tests and friction modifying mechanisms of ATFs. A test oil matrix containing basic ATF components was tested. The friction results were analyzed using both the linear-defined multiple parameter spider chart ATF evaluation (LSAE) method (Zhao et al., 2008, “A New Method to Evaluate the Overall Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids—Multiple Parameters Spider Chart Evaluation,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., 222(J3), pp. 459–470) and the friction coefficient ratio index method (Zhao et al., 2011, “Understanding Friction Behavior in Automatic Transmission Fluid LVFA Test: A New Positive Curve Parameter to Friction Coefficient Ratio Index Evaluation,” ASME J. Tribol., 133(2), p. 021802) (e.g., μ150 on the low-velocity friction apparatus (LVFA) μ-v curve results to compare the overall tribosystem and the snapshot friction performance during the test). Surface analysis results were obtained by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and they are presented in this study to investigate the tribofilm compositions formed by different additive formulations. Some organic functional groups were found at the sample surfaces, such as –OH and O–C–O, and their presence is proposed to have a beneficial influence on the ATF friction performance. This paper discusses the surface analysis results of the test sample pieces, the possible links between specific functional groups and friction performance, and the proposed pathways of additive decompositions by using chemical bond dissociation energy comparisons.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Zhao, H., Neville, A., Morina, A., Durham, J., and Vickerman, R., 2008, “A New Method to Evaluate the Overall Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids—Multiple Parameters Spider Chart Evaluation,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., 222(J3), pp. 459–470. [CrossRef]
Zhao, H., Morina, A., Neville, A., Durham, J., and Vickerman, R., 2011, “Understanding Friction Behavior in Automatic Transmission Fluid LVFA Test: A New Positive Curve Parameter to Friction Coefficient Ratio Index Evaluation,” ASME J. Tribol., 133(2), p. 021802. [CrossRef]
Murakami, Y., Linden, J. L., Flaherty, J. E., Sprys, J. W., King, T. E., Kurashina, H., Furumoto, M., Iwamoto, S.-I., Kagawa, M., and Ueda, F., 2000, “Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids—A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2000-01-1870.
Devlin, M. T., Li, S., Tersigni, S. H., Turner, T. L., Jao, T.-C., Yatsunami, K., and Cameron, T. M., 2003, “Fundamentals of Anti-Shudder Durability: Part II—Fluid Effects,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2003-01-3254.
Calcut, B. D., and Sarkar, R., 2004, “Estimating the Useful Life of an ATF Using an Integrated Bulk Oxidation and Friction Degradation Model,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-01-3028.
Willermet, P. A., Gupta, G. K., Honkanen, D., Sprys, J. W., and Mcwatt, D. G., 1998, “ATF Bulk Oxidative Degradation and Its Effects on LVFA Friction and the Performance of a Modulated Torque Converter Clutch,” SAE Technical Paper No. 982668.
Cameron, T. M., Mccombs, T., Devlin, M., Tersigni, S., and Jao, T. C., 2004, “ATF Friction Properties and Shift Quality,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-01-3027.
Linden, J. L., Doi, J., Furumoto, M., Hoshikawa, N., King, T., Kurashina, H., Murakami, Y., Sprys, J. W., and Ueda, F., 1998, “A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity—A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee,” SAE Technical Paper No. 982672.
Tohyama, M., Ohmori, T., and Ueda, F., 1999, “Anti-Shudder Mechanism of ATF Additives at Slip-Controlled Lockup Clutch,” SAE Technical Paper No. 1999-01-3616.
Kaneko, H., Morisato, H., Noshiro, Y., Seki, M., Ito, Y., and Sasaki, K., 2003, “Revision of the Automatic Transmission Fluid Anti-Shudder Performance Test: Activity Report of JASO ATF Subcommittee for JASO M349-2001,” JSAE Rev., 24(3), pp. 355–356. [CrossRef]
Maki, R., Nyman, P., Olsson, R., and Ganemi, B., 2005, “Measurement and Characterization of Anti-Shudder Properties in Wet Clutch Applications,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-0878.
Kimura, Y., and Otani, C., 2006, “Contact and Wear of Paper-Based Friction Materials for Oil-Immersed Clutches–Wear Model for Composite Materials,” Tribol. Int., 38(11–12), pp. 943–950. [CrossRef]
Watts, R. F., Nibert, R. K., and Tandon, M., 1996, “Anti-Shudder Durability of Automatic Transmission Fluids: Mechanism of the Loss of Shudder Control,” Technicsche Akademie Esslingen 10th International Colloquium on Tribology-Solving Friction and Wear Problems, W. J.Bartz, ed., Jan. 9–11, pp. 1341–1358.
Tipton, C. D., Huston, M. E., and Wetsel, W. R., 1998, “Fundamental Studies on ATF Friction, Part II,” SAE Technical Paper No. 982670.
Tipton, C. D., and Schiferl, E. A., 1997, “Fundamental Studies on ATF Friction, Part I,” SAE Technical Paper No. 971621.
Kugimiya, T., 2000, “Effects of Additives for ATF on Mu-V Characteristics,” Proceedings of International Tribology Conference, Nagasaki, Japan, Oct. 30–Nov. 2.
Zhao, H., Morina, A., Neville, A., Durham, J., and Vickerman, R., 2010, “Anti-Shudder Properties of ATFs—An Investigation Into Friction Modifying Mechanisms Using VSFT and SAE No. 2 Tests,” Tribol. Trans., 53(6), pp. 816–830. [CrossRef]
Beamson, G., and Briggs, D., 1992, High Resolution XPS of Organic Polymers: The Scienta Esca300 Database, Wiley, New York.
Briggs, D., and Beamson, G., 1992, “Primary and Secondary Oxygen-Induced C1s Binding Energy Shifts in X-Ray Photoelectron of Polymers,” Anal. Chem., 64, pp. 1729–1736. [CrossRef]
ASTM, 2004, ASTM Standard E995-04 Standard Guide for Background Subtraction Techniques in Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM, 2006, ASTM E168-06 Standard Practices for General Techniques of Infrared Quantitative Analysis, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Piras, F. M., Rossi, A., and Spencer, N. D., 2002, “Growth of Tribological Films: In Situ Characterization Based on Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy,” Langmuir, 18(17), pp. 6606–6613. [CrossRef]
“XPS, AES, UPS and ESCA,” LaSurface.com, Jan. 6, 2012, http://www.Lasurface.Com
Davidson, J. E., Hinchley, S. L., Harris, S. G., Parkin, A., Parsons, S., and Tasker, P. A., 2006, “Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Aid the Rational Design of Organic Friction Modifiers,” J. Mol. Graphics Modell., 25, pp. 495–506. [CrossRef]
Butt, H.-J., Graf, K., and Kappl, M., 2006, Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Chichester.
Zhao, Y., Lu, Y., and Wright, M. A., 2006, “Sensitivity Series and Friction Surface Analysis of Non-Metallic Friction Materials,” Mater. Des., 27, pp. 833–838. [CrossRef]
Kano, M., 2006, “Super Low Friction of DLC Applied to Engine Cam Follower Lubricated With Ester-Containing Oil,” Tribol. Int., 39(12), pp. 1682–1685. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

VSFT test steel annulus and friction material plate configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Structure of VSFT test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) VSFT test (point 7 oil) posttest pieces (i) steel annulus test piece (ii) friction material plate and (b) Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) image of friction plate wear track

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

LSAE system format results of (a) base oil and single-additive oils—poor behavior group, (b) dual-additive oils results—intermediate group, (c) three-additive oils and fully formulated oil—good group, and (d) point 7, FF, and point 4 oil results comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of the LVFA results of three oil formulations at different durability test time: (a) point 7 oil, (b) fully formulated oil, (c) point 4 oil, and (d) P7, FF, and P4 oil's LVFA results at 120 °C after 16-h durability tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

ATR FT-IR spectra of P4, P7, FF oil posttest friction material wear track, and fresh sample surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

ATR FT-IR spectra of P7, FF, and P4 oil posttest friction material unworn area

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Posttest friction material surface wear track XPS results of (a) point 4 oil, (b) point 7 oil, and (c) FF oil

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Posttest friction material surface unworn area XPS results of (a) point 4 oil, (b) point 7 oil, and (c) FF oil

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

ToF-SIMS negative scan on OH peak comparisons. (a) OH spectra outside and inside wear track comparison, (b) OH chemical image on the fresh friction material sample, (c) OH chemical images of three oils tested sample surfaces—outside the wear track, and (d) OH chemical images of three surfaces—inside the wear track.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

OH and CH3O ion peak intensity versus friction coefficient plot

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

ToF-SIMS positive scan on C4H9O peak spectra comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

C4H9O chemical images of three sample wear track areas from ToF-SIMS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Proposed FM2 adsorption pathway on the friction material surface

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In