The nanomechanical properties of a CoCrMo medical implant alloy and a novel microtextured carbide-coated CoCrMo alloy (MTCC) surface—hardness and elastic modulus—were examined using nanoindentation. The MTCC surfaces may be a successful alternative bearing material for artificial joints. Understanding the nanomechanical, material properties, and surface morphology of the MTCC–CoCrMo surface are important for designing wear resistant artificial joints. The microtextured carbide surfaces were created using a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition reaction (MPCVD). Nanomechanical properties, volumetric wear properties, and surface morphology were measured and used to determine the performance of the conventional CoCrMo alloy and MTCC surfaces (processed for either 2 or 4 h) in static environments and under severe wear conditions. The hardness, elastic modulus, and surface parameters of the 4-h MTCC surfaces were always greater than the 2-h MTCC and CoCrMo alloy surfaces. The nanomechanical properties changed for the CoCrMo alloy and 2-h and 4-h MTCC surfaces after, in contrast to before, wear testing. This indicates that the wear mechanisms affect the nanomechanical results. Overall, the 4-h MTCC surfaces had greater wear resistance than the 2-h MTCC or CoCrMo alloy surfaces.