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Research Papers: Friction & Wear

Nonlinear Wear Response of WC-Ni Cemented Carbides Irradiated by High-Intensity Pulsed Ion Beam

[+] Author and Article Information
M. K. Lei

e-mail: surfeng@dlut.edu.cn
Surface Engineering Laboratory,
School of Materials Science and Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received May 7, 2013; final manuscript received September 4, 2013; published online November 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 136(1), 011603 (Nov 18, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-13-1096; doi: 10.1115/1.4025626 History: Received May 07, 2013; Revised September 04, 2013

Surface hardening on WC-Ni cemented carbides was achieved by high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation, with formation of a binderless, densified, and “hilly” remelted top layer of a few μm in depth and a shock strengthened underlayer down to a hundred μm. The tribological behavior of the samples was studied under dry sliding against GCr15 bearing steel on a block-on-ring tribometer with 98 N and 0.47 m/s. The specific wear rate/wear resistance presented an exponential dependence on the surface hardness, in contrast to the commonly reported linear dependence of the specific wear rate or wear resistance on the hardness of WC based cemented carbides among both WC-Ni and WC-Co systems. The original samples underwent a severe abrasive wear due to the Ni binder micro-abrasion and WC grain fragmentation/pullout, whereas the irradiated samples began with a gradual abrasion of the binderless hard tops, followed by a mild abrasive wear accompanied by local adhesive wear. The wear resistance has been also compared with the reported data concerning the relative hardness of friction pairs in a value range of 2–7 on block-on-ring tribometer tests with the friction pairs of WC cemented carbides and steels in unlubricated condition. The nonlinear wear response is explained by the wear mechanism transition otherwise unobtainable in the case of the reported hardening by either lowering the binder content or refining the WC grains. It is revealed that the interfacial bonding enhancement of the WC/binder and the binder strengthening are pronounced for improving the wear resistance of the cemented carbides, by the effective suppressing of the WC grain fragmentation/pullout and binder micro-abrasion, even though they have limited contribution to the hardness enhancement.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

SEM images of the WC-Ni sample surfaces: (a) original, (b) 1 shot, (c) 5 shots, and (d) 10 shots of HIPIB irradiation at 300 A/cm2

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Fig. 2

Cross-sectional SEM images of the WC-Ni sample surfaces: (a) original, (b) 1 shot, (c) 5 shots, and (d) 10 shots of HIPIB irradiation at 300 A/cm2

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Fig. 3

Surface profiles of the original and HIPIB-irradiated WC-Ni samples at 300 A/cm2 obtained by using a profilometer with a 2 -μm-radius pinhead

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Fig. 4

XRD patterns of the original and HIPIB-irradiated WC-Ni samples at 300 A/cm2 with 1–10 shots

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Fig. 5

Surface microhardness of the HIPIB-irradiated WC-Ni samples at 300 A/cm2 with 1–10 shots

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Fig. 6

Hardness depth profiles of the original and HIPIB-irradiated WC-Ni samples at 300 A/cm2 with 1–10 shots

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Fig. 7

Dependence of the specific wear rate on shot number at 300 A/cm2 for HIPIB-irradiated WC-Ni samples after the sliding wear test against GCr15 steel

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Fig. 8

Dependence of the wear resistance on shot number at 300 A/cm2 for HIPIB-irradiated WC-Ni samples after the sliding wear test against GCr15 steel

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Fig. 9

Friction coefficient curves for the original and HIPIB-irradiated WC-Ni samples at 300 A/cm2 with 1–10 shots during the sliding wear test against GCr15 steel

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Fig. 10

Surface profiles of the wear tracks on the original and HIPIB-irradiated WC-Ni samples at 300 A/cm2 after the wear test against the GCr15 steel friction pair

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Fig. 11

SEM images of the worn surfaces on the original WC-Ni samples: (a) overview of the wear track, (b) magnified image of zone A in the wear track, and (c) zone B on the wear track edge

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Fig. 12

SEM images of the worn surfaces on the WC-Ni samples irradiated at 300 A/cm2 with 10 shots: (a) overview of the wear track, (b) magnified image of zone A in the wear track, (c) zone B in the wear track, and (d) zone C on the wear track edge

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Fig. 13

Dependence of the specific wear rate and wear resistance on the surface microhardness of the original and HIPIB-irradiated WC-Ni samples at 300 A/cm2 with 1–10 shots

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Fig. 14

Comparison of the wear resistance versus the relative hardness of the WC cemented carbides and steels friction pairs

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