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Research Papers: Contact Mechanics

Three-Dimensional Finite Element Elastic–Plastic Model for Subsurface Initiated Spalling in Rolling Contacts

[+] Author and Article Information
John A. R. Bomidi

e-mail: jbomidi@purdue.edu

Farshid Sadeghi

Cummins Professor of Mechanical Engineering
e-mail: sadeghi@ecn.purdue.edu
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received March 18, 2013; final manuscript received September 20, 2013; published online November 26, 2013. Assoc. Editor: James R. Barber.

J. Tribol 136(1), 011402 (Nov 26, 2013) (14 pages) Paper No: TRIB-13-1065; doi: 10.1115/1.4025841 History: Received March 18, 2013; Revised September 20, 2013

In this investigation, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model was developed to study subsurface initiated spalling observed in rolling line contact of tribo components such as bearings. An elastic–kinematic hardening–plastic material model is employed to capture the material behavior of bearing steel and is coupled with the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach to capture the material degradation due to fatigue. The fatigue damage model employs both stress and accumulated plastic strain based damage evolution laws for fatigue failure initiation and propagation. Failure is modeled by mesh partitioning along unstructured, nonplanar, intergranular paths of the microstructure topology represented by randomly generated Voronoi tessellations. The elastic–plastic model coupled with CDM was used to predict both ratcheting behavior and fatigue damage in heavily loaded contacts. Fatigue damage induced due to the accumulated plastic strains around broken intergranular joints drive the majority of the crack propagation stage, resulting in a lower percentage of life spent in propagation. The 3D FE model was used to determine fatigue life at different contact pressures ranging from 2 to 4.5 GPa for 33 different randomly generated microstructure topology models. The effect of change in contact pressure due to subsurface damage and plastic strain accumulation was also captured by explicitly modeling the rolling contact geometry and the results were compared to those generated assuming a Hertzian pressure profile. The spall shape, fatigue lives, and their dispersion characterized by Weibull slopes obtained from the model correlate well with the previously published experimental results.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

3D half space model with randomly generated Voronoi topology restricted to the RVE

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Fig. 2

Contact pressure distribution at the center line (Y = 0) when the roller is at the center of the half space during a rolling contact pass

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Fig. 3

Torsion S-N data for through-hardened (58–62 HRC), JIS SUJ2 from [38] with power law fit

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Fig. 4

Stress strain (shear) response at the critical depth (0.5a) for p(max) = 4.5 GPa for elastic–kinematic hardening–plastic model with no damage

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Fig. 5

Stress–strain (shear) response at four different locations at the critical depth (0.5a) for p(max) = 4.5 GPa for elastic–kinematic hardening–plastic model with damage

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Fig. 6

Crack evolution at pmax = 2.0 GPa with (a) and (b) elastic RCF model, and with (c) and (d) elastic–plastic RCF model

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Fig. 7

Crack evolution at pmax = 4.5 GPa with (a) and (b) elastic RCF model, and with (c) and (d) elastic–plastic RCF model

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Fig. 8

Accumulated plastic strains and crack pattern at (a) and (b) pmax = 2.0 GPa and (c) and (d) pmax = 4.5 GPa

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Fig. 9

Experimental observation of a spall [44]

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Fig. 10

Fatigue life predictions for different contact pressures from randomly generated microstructure topologies

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Fig. 11

Weibull analysis of fatigue life predictions for different contact pressures from randomly generated microstructure topologies

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Fig. 12

RCF lives at different contact pressures and life equations

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Fig. 13

Crack and contact pressure evolution at initial pmax = 2 GPa with elastic–plastic RCF model in the cut plane that contains the crack that reached the surface

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Fig. 14

Crack and contact pressure evolution at pmax = 4.5 GPa with elastic–plastic RCF model in the cut plane that contains the crack that reached the surface

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Fig. 15

Effect of contact pressure evolution on fatigue life predictions for initial (a) pmax = 2 GPa and (b) 4.5 GPa

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