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Research Papers: Friction & Wear

Stepwise Erosion as a Method for Investigating the Wear Mechanisms at Different Impact Angles in Slurry Erosion

[+] Author and Article Information
Y. M. Abd-Elrhman

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
Assiut University,
Assiut 71516, Egypt
e-mail: y_mahmoud_a@hotmail.com

A. Abouel-Kasem

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering-Rabigh,
King Abdulaziz University,
P.O. Box 344,
Rabigh 21911, Saudi Arabia
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Assiut University,
Assiut 71516, Egypt
e-mail: abouelkasem@yahoo.com

S. M. Ahmed

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
Majmaah University,
P.O. Box 66,
Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: shemy2007@yahoo.com

K. M. Emara

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
Assiut University,
Assiut 71516, Egypt
e-mail: k.emara45@yahoo.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 5, 2012; final manuscript received December 17, 2013; published online February 19, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Zhong Min Jin.

J. Tribol 136(2), 021608 (Feb 19, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-12-1046; doi: 10.1115/1.4026420 History: Received April 05, 2012; Revised December 17, 2013

In the present work, stepwise erosion technique was carried out to investigate in detail the influence of impact angle on the erosion process of AISI 5117 steel. The number of impact sites and their morphologies at different impact angles were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination and image analysis. The tests were carried out with particle concentration of 1 wt. %, and the impact velocity of slurry stream was 15 m/s. Silica sand—which has a nominal size range of 250–355 μm—was used as an erodent, using whirling-arm test rig. The results have shown that the number of craters, as expected, increases with the increase in the mass of erodent for all impact angles and this number decreases with the increase of the impact angle. In addition, the counted number of craters is larger than the calculated number of particles at any stage for all impact angles. This may be explained by the effect of the rebound effect of particles, the irregular shape for these particles, and particle fragmentation. The effect of impact angle based on the impact crater shape can be divided into two regions; the first region for θ ≤ 60 deg and the second region for θ ≥ 75 deg. The shape of the craters is related to the dominant erosion mechanisms of plowing and microcutting in the first region and indentation and lip extrusion in the second region. In the first region, the length of the tracks decreases with the increase of impact angle. The calculated size ranges are from few micrometers to 100 μm for the first region and to 50 μm in the second region. Chipping of the former impact sites by subsequent impact particles plays an important role in developing erosion.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the slurry erosion whirling-arm rig [12]

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of impact velocity and impact angle [12]

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Fig. 3

Scanning electron microphotograph of silica sand (mean diameter = 302 μm)

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Fig. 4

Scanning electron microphotographs of 5117 alloy steel eroded surfaces at different impact angles and mass of erodent during the four successive stages at the midway of the specimens

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Fig. 5

Number of accumulative impact craters versus mass of erodent for different impact angles

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Fig. 6

Cumulative mass loss of low alloy steel 5117 versus mass of erodent for different impact angles

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Fig. 7

Damages at the midway of the specimens surfaces at mass of erodent of 2.6 g and different impact angles: (a) 15 deg, (b) 30 deg, (c) 45 deg, (d) 60 deg, (e) 75 deg, and (f) 90 deg; symbols A and B refer to the particle body impacting and more than one protrusion impacting, respectively, and the scatter arrows illustrate the divergence of the particles

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Fig. 8

(a) Crater-size distributions with different impact angles and after exposure of (a) 1.3 g, (b) 2.6 g, (c) 3.9 g, and (d) 5.2 g. (b) Crater-size distributions with different impact angles and after exposure of (a) 1.3 g, (b) 2.6 g, (c) 3.9 g, and (d) 5.2 g.

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Fig. 9

Sequence of images at the midway of the specimens illustrating development of damage at the impact angle of 45 deg after exposure of (a) 1.3 g, (b) 2.6 g, (c) 3.9 g, and (d) 5.2 g

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Fig. 10

Sequence of images at the midway of the specimens illustrating development of damage at the impact angle of 60 deg after exposure of (a) 1.3 g, (b) 2.6 g, (c) 3.9 g, and (d) 5.2 g

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Fig. 11

Sequence of images at the midway of the specimens illustrating development of damage at the impact angle of 90 deg after exposure of (a) 1.3 g, (b) 2.6 g, (c) 3.9 g, and (d) 5.2 g

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