Extraction and testing of miniature compression specimens from localized regions of components affected by rolling contact fatigue loading can provide significant insight into material degradation. Current ASTM standards for compression testing of cylindrical specimens become too stringent and difficult to achieve when specimen size is reduced to around 1 mm in diameter. The tolerances for surface flatness, parallelism of the loading surfaces, and the perpendicularity between the axis and the loading surfaces play crucial roles in the resulting stress-strain curves under uniaxial compression loading. In this manuscript, a systematic study is performed to quantify the influence of the above geometric parameters on the stress-strain response. Based on the analysis, the allowable geometric tolerances of miniature cylindrical specimens for a valid compression tests are recommended. The analysis results are validated and the usefulness of the method is demonstrated on miniature specimens extracted from the rolling contact fatigue affected regions of high strength M50 bearing balls. The yield stress within the rolling contact fatigue affected region is shown to increase by over 12%.