Research Papers: Friction & Wear

Modeling Wear for Heterogeneous Bi-Phasic Materials Using Discrete Elements Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthieu Champagne

Université de Lyon,
Villeurbanne F-69621, France
e-mail: matthieu.champagne@insa-lyon.fr

Mathieu Renouf

Research Associate
Université de Montpellier 2,
Montpellier F-34095, France
e-mail: mathieu.renouf@univ-montp2.fr

Yves Berthier

Research Professor
Université de Lyon,
Villeurbanne F-69621, France
e-mail: yves.berthier@insa-lyon.fr

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received June 21, 2013; final manuscript received October 14, 2013; published online January 20, 2014. Assoc. Editor: George K. Nikas.

J. Tribol 136(2), 021603 (Jan 20, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-13-1127; doi: 10.1115/1.4026053 History: Received June 21, 2013; Revised October 14, 2013

A proper understanding of the processes of friction and wear can only be reached through a detailed study of the contact interface. Empirical laws, such as Archard's, are often used in numerical models. They give good results over a limited range of conditions when their coefficients are correctly set, but they cannot be predicted: any significant change of conditions requires a new set of experimental coefficients. In this paper, a new method, the use of discrete element models (DEMs), is proposed in order to tend to predictable models. As an example, a generic biphasic friction material is modeled, of the type used in aeronautical or automotive brake systems. Micro-scale models are built in order to study material damage and wear under tribological stress. The models show what could be achieved by these numerical methods in tribological studies and how they can reproduce the behavior and mechanisms seen with real-life friction materials without any empirical law or parameter.

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Fig. 1

Representation of the linear mappings of the contact frame (local level) onto the body frame (global level). The black dot represents a contact point connected to the local frame while the white dots represent the center of the mass of particles connected to the contact point by linear mapping H.

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Fig. 2

Cohesive zone model force profile: (a) elastic range definition and (b) β value

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Fig. 3

(a) Granular model principle and microstructure description: dark gray particles represent inclusions while light gray particles represent the matrix and (b) a sketch of the model with 1st bodies (upper and lower) and 3rd bodies shown; the granular model shown in (b) is the abradable part of the upper 1st body shown in (a)

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Fig. 4

Comparison between heterogeneous materials under growing normal pressure, under the same shear velocity, and at the same simulation time: (a) pressure of 1 MPa (0.1 N as normal force), (b) pressure of 10 MPa (1 N), and (c) pressure of 100 MPa (10 N)

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Fig. 5

Evolution of global damage for two homogeneous materials and a heterogeneous material under normal pressure and shear velocity

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Fig. 6

Steady state of a homogeneous material submitted to tribological solicitations with the establishment of a protective third body layer (seen at the bottom of the model)

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Fig. 7

Geometry of the three heterogeneous models used, characterized by different properties of inclusions reaching the frictional surface: (a) mixed inclusions, (b) short inclusions, and (c) long inclusions

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Fig. 8

Evolution of the global damage of the three heterogeneous models

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Fig. 9

Evolution of the global damage of the three heterogeneous models in each phase of the material: (a) matrix 1, (b) inclusion/matrix, and (c) inclusions

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Fig. 10

Visualization of the evolution of βi during the tribological process for geometry 2 at time: (a) t = 0.025, (b) t = 0.075, (c) t = 0.10, and (d) t = 0.3

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Fig. 11

The q/p values of the equivalent strain tensors of the first and third body, compared to the global friction coefficient

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Fig. 12

Evolution of the global damage β for value of the interaction between the inclusion particles and matrix particles of (a) 103, (b) 105, and (c) 107

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Fig. 13

Evolution of the global friction μ for the value of the interaction between the inclusion particles and matrix particles of (a) 103, (b) 105, and (c) 107

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Fig. 14

Global damage with different levels of adhesion force in the third body layer. The solid black line corresponds to the result of Sec. 3.2.

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Fig. 15

Aspect at time t = 0.1 μs and t = 0.4 μs of damaged material (geometry 2) for a (a) weak, (b) medium, and (c) strong cohesion value for the debris particles

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Fig. 16

Friction coefficient of geometry 2 with different levels of adhesion force in the third body layer

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Fig. 17

Global damage of the different geometries, with different levels of adhesion force in the third body layer: (a) g = 0.0100, (b) g = 0.0010, and (c) g = 0.0001

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Fig. 18

Interface between brake pad friction materials: (a) SEM-micrograph and (b) sketch (courtesy of Oesterle [22])

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Fig. 19

(a) Interface between carbon/carbon friction materials, SEM-micrograph (courtesy of Kasem [23]), and (b) optical microscopy cross section view of the CC composite after friction showing the heterogeneous aspect and third body “corner effect”



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