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Research Papers: Lubricants

Windage and Churning Effects in Dipped Lubrication

[+] Author and Article Information
Anant S. Kolekar

Imperial College London,
Tribology Group,
Mechanical Engineering Department,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: akolekar@imperial.ac.uk

Andrew V. Olver

Imperial College London,
Tribology Group,
Mechanical Engineering Department,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: a.v.olver@imperial.ac.uk

Adam E. Sworski

Valvoline Technology,
22 Front St.,
Ashland, KY 41101
e-mail: aesworski@ashland.com

Frances E. Lockwood

Ashland Consumer Markets,
3499 Blazer Parkway,
Lexington, KY 40509
e-mail: felockwood@ashland.com

The term “windage” here is used to refer to induced flow that primarily consists of the movement of air or other gases. In contrast, the term “churning” refers to liquids, like oil or water—or solids, like butter!

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received February 18, 2013; final manuscript received October 11, 2013; published online January 15, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Jordan Liu.

J. Tribol 136(2), 021801 (Jan 15, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-13-1049; doi: 10.1115/1.4025992 History: Received February 18, 2013; Revised October 11, 2013

In dipped (splash) lubrication, a rotating component, such as a gear, is partly submerged in a reservoir of liquid lubricant and acts to distribute it within the lubricated machine. Dipped lubrication is widely used for low to medium speed applications in the industrial and automotive sectors and there is a significant interest in the associated energy loss (the “churning” loss) because of its influence on efficiency and fuel consumption. In this study, a simple test rig consisting of a spur gear rotating in a cylindrical enclosure, partly filled with a liquid, was used to study the effect of fluid properties on the churning loss. The inertia rundown method was used to determine the power losses. Lubricating oils, water and aqueous glycerol solutions were among the fluids used. Correlations with Froude and Reynolds and Bond numbers are presented. It was found that the churning losses were significantly affected by the fluid disposition within the housing. In turn this was affected by the ratio of inertial forces to gravity (Froude number) and by air pressure. The influence of the pressure of the air within the enclosure was also investigated. When the air was evacuated from the enclosure, the churning losses increased, by a factor of up to 4.5 times. This can be explained by the effect of air (windage and aeration) on the liquid disposition, factors neglected in most previous work.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram; (b) test rig

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Fig. 2

Fill level in cylinder (Scale 1:28)

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Fig. 3

Typical rundown results (oil #4)

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Fig. 4

Comparison of fluid disposition for 1 bar and 2 bar

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Fig. 5

Effect of different starting speeds for oil #4

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Fig. 6

Churning power loss comparison for water

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Fig. 7

Churning power loss comparison for oil #1

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Fig. 8

Churning power loss comparison for oil #3

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Fig. 9

Power versus Viscosity at constant speed interval for 1 bar

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Fig. 10

Power versus Viscosity at constant speed interval for 2 bar

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Fig. 11

Power versus Viscosity at constant speed interval for 0 bar

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Fig. 12

Surface tension effect of water

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Fig. 13

Aqueous glycerol solutions at 1 bar

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Fig. 14

Aqueous glycerol solutions at 2 bar

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Fig. 15

Contour plot for Power parameter (1 bar, oils)

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Fig. 16

Contour plot for Power parameter (2 bar, oils)

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Fig. 17

Contour plot for power parameter (0 bar, oils)

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Fig. 18

Contour plot of the power parameter (1 bar, aqueous glycerol)

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Fig. 19

Contour plot of the power parameter (2 bar, aqueous glycerol)

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Fig. 20

Fluid disposition

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