Research Papers: Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

Time-Temperature-Pressure Superposition in Polymer Thickened Liquid Lubricants

[+] Author and Article Information
Scott Bair

Georgia Institute of Technology,
Center for High-Pressure Rheology,
George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Atlanta, GA 30332-0405
e-mail: scott.bair@me.gatech.edu

Farrukh Qureshi

Physical & Analytical Sciences,
The Lubrizol Corporation,
29400 Lakeland Boulevard,
Wickliffe, OH 44092-2298
e-mail: Farrukh.Qureshi@Lubrizol.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received August 30, 2013; final manuscript received January 22, 2014; published online February 19, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Dong Zhu.

J. Tribol 136(2), 021505 (Feb 19, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: TRIB-13-1176; doi: 10.1115/1.4026591 History: Received August 30, 2013; Revised January 22, 2014

Shear-dependent viscosities have been measured over a range of temperature and pressure for seven engine oils blended to have kinematic viscosity of 14 mm2/s at 100 °C with two base oils and four viscosity modifiers. Elevated pressure measurements were performed with a pressurized thin-film Couette viscometer and ambient pressure measurements were done with a PCS USV viscometer. These measurements were fitted to a generalized Newtonian model with the effective shear modulus specified by an empirical power-law shifting rule. The use of PAO-40 as a thickener delayed the shear-thinning to very high stress as compared with the polymers. The rate sensitivity of the oils thickened with nondispersant polymers was similar. Like the Tannas TBS viscometer, the PCS Instruments USV viscometer provides shear-dependent viscosity measurements, which can be essential for the most accurate time-temperature-pressure shifting. Viscosities measured at high viscous power in the ambient pressure viscometer, however, tend to be influenced by thermal softening and at high stress by shear cavitation.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Bair, S., Vergne, P., and Querry, M., 2005, “A Unified Shear-Thinning Treatment of Both Film Thickness and Traction in EHD,” Tribol. Lett., 18(2), pp. 145–152. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y., Wang, J. Q., Bair, S., and Vergne, P., 2007, “A Quantitative Solution for the Full Shear-Thinning EHL Point Contact Problem Including Traction,” Tribol. Lett., 28(2), pp. 171–181. [CrossRef]
Habchi, W., Vergne, P., Bair, S., Andersson, O., Eyheramendy, D., and Morales-Espejel, G. E., 2010, “Influence of Pressure and Temperature Dependence of Thermal Properties of a Lubricant on the Behaviour of Circular TEHD Contacts,” Tribol. Int., 43, pp. 1842–1850. [CrossRef]
Habchi, W., Bair, S., and Vergne, P., 2013, “On Friction Regimes in Quantitative Elastohydrodynamics,” Tribol. Int., 58, pp. 107–117. [CrossRef]
Krupka, I., Bair, S., Kumar, P., Khonsari, M. M., and Hartl, M., 2009, “An Experimental Validation of the Recently Discovered Scale Effect in Generalized Newtonian EHL,” Tribol. Lett., 33(2), pp. 127–135. [CrossRef]
Krupka, I., Kumar, P., Bair, S., Khonsari, M. M., and Hartl, M., 2010, “The Effect of Load (Pressure) for Quantitative EHL Film Thickness,” Tribol. Lett., 37(3), pp. 613–622. [CrossRef]
Bair, S., Krupka, I., Sperka, P., and Hartl, M., 2013, “Quantitative Elastohydrodynamic Film Thickness of Mechanically Degraded Oil,” Tribol. Int., 64, pp. 33–38. [CrossRef]
Habchi, W., Bair, S., Qureshi, F., and Covitch, M., 2013, “A Film Thickness Correction Formula for Double-Newtonian Shear-Thinning in Rolling EHL Circular Contacts,” Tribol. Lett., 50(1), pp. 59–66. [CrossRef]
Spikes, H., 2006, “Sixty Years of EHL,” Lubr. Sci., 18, pp. 265–291. [CrossRef]
Bair, S., 2006, “A More Complete Description of the Shear Rheology of High-Temperature, High-Shear Journal Bearing Lubrication,” Tribol. Trans.,” 49(1), pp. 39–45. [CrossRef]
Tanner, R. I., 2000, Engineering Rheology, 2nd ed., Oxford University, Oxford, UK, pp. 462–464.
BairS., 2007, High Pressure Rheology for Quantitative Elastohydrodynamics, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 29; 137–149; 163; 171.
Guangjun, Z., Ping, H., Shizhu, W., and Huirong, M., 1998, “The Non-Newtonian Effect of Temperature on Hydrodynamic Lubrication Failure,” Lubr. Sci., 10(3), pp. 233–245. [CrossRef]
Hersey, M. D., and Zimmer, J. C., 1937, “Heat Effects in Capillary Flow at High Rates of Shear,” J. Appl. Phys., 8(5), pp. 359–363. [CrossRef]
Schultheisz, C. R., and Leigh, S. D., 2002, “Certification of the Rheological Behavior of SRM 2490, Polyisobutylene Dissolved in 2, 6, 10, 14-Tetramethylpentadecane,” NIST, 260(143), pp. 2–27.
Kottke, P. A., Bair, S. S., and Winer, W. O., 2005, “Cavitation in Creeping Shear Flows,” AIChE J., 51(8), pp. 2150–2170. [CrossRef]
Bair, S., 2004, “A Rough Shear-Thinning Correction for EHD Film Thickness,” Tribol. Trans., 47(3), pp. 361–365. [CrossRef]
Bird, R. B., Armstrong, R. C., and Hassager, O., 1987, Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, Wiley, New York, Vol. 1, pp. 106–139.
Schurz, J., Vollrath-Rödiger, M., and Krässig, H., 1981, “Rheologische Untersuchungen an Polyacrylnitril-Spinnlösungen: Erweiterung des Viskosimeters HV 6 Für Höhere Temperaturen,” Rheol. Acta, 20(6), pp. 569–578. [CrossRef]
Bair, S., and Khonsari, M., 1996, “An EHD Inlet Zone Analysis Incorporating the Second Newtonian,” ASME J. Tribol., 118(2), pp. 341–343. [CrossRef]
Bair, S., and Qureshi, F., 2003, “The High Pressure Rheology of Polymer-Oil Solutions,” Tribol. Int., 36(8), pp. 637–645. [CrossRef]
Kumar, P., Khonsari, M. M., and Bair, S., 2009, “Full EHL Simulations Using the Actual Ree-Eyring Model for Shear-Thinning Lubricants,” ASME J. Tribol., 131(1), p. 011802. [CrossRef]
Winter, H. H., 1977, “Viscous Dissipation in Shear Flows of Molten Polymers,” Adv. Heat Transfer, 13, pp. 205–267. [CrossRef]
Bair, S., and Qureshi, F., 2002, “Accurate Measurements of Pressure-Viscosity Behavior in Lubricants,” Tribol. Trans., 45(3), pp. 390–396. [CrossRef]
Bair, S., 2012, “Chapter 26: Rheology” Handbook of Lubrication and Tribology: Theory and Design, 2nd ed., R. W.Bruce, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, Vol. 2, pp. 26.9–26.10.
Selby, T., and Miller, G., 2008, “The Expanding Dimensions of High Shear Rate Viscometry,” SAE Technical Paper No. 01-1621.
Holtzinger, J., Green, J., Lamb, G., Atkinson, D., and Spikes, H., 2012 “New Method of Measuring Permanent Viscosity Loss of Polymer-Containing Lubricants,” Tribol. Trans., 55(5), pp. 631–639. [CrossRef]
ASTM D445, 1965, “Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger, J. C., 1959, “Conduction of Heat in Solids: Second Edition,” Oxford University, London, UK, p. 75.
Warrens, C., Jefferies, A. C., Mufti, R. A., Lamb, G. D., Guiducci, A. E., and Smith, A. G., 2008, “Effect of Oil Rheology and Chemistry on Journal-Bearing Friction and Wear,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, 222(3), pp. 441–450. [CrossRef]
Bair, S., and Winer, W. O., 1987, “The Influence of Ambient Pressure on the Apparent Shear Thinning of Liquid Lubricants-An Overlooked Phenomenon,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, International Conference on Tribology, Friction, Lubrication and Wear, 50 Years On, Vol. III, Institution of Mechanical Engineers by Mechanical Engineering Publications, July, 1–3, 1987, Paper No. C90/87.
USV Ultra Shear Viscometer Brochure, 2013. Available at: http://www.pcs-instruments.com/pdf/usv/USV_Brochure.pdf
Krupka, I., Bair, S., Kumar, P., Svoboda, P., and Hartl, M., 2011, “Mechanical Degradation of the Liquid in an Operating EHL Contact,” Tribol. Lett., 41(1), pp. 191–197. [CrossRef]
Bair, S., Vergne, P., and Marchetti, M., 2002, “The Effect of Shear-Thinning on Film Thickness for Space Lubricants,” Tribol. Trans., 45(3), pp. 330–333. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Flow curves for the NIST standard reference material SRM2490, certified viscosities at ambient pressure and viscosities measured in the pressurized Couette viscometer at pressure of 2 MPa. Two temperatures are represented

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The pressurized Couette viscometer for pressure to 700 MPa. A perfluorinated hydrocarbon occupies the lower volume to the position indicated. (Reproduced from Ref. [12] with permission from Elsevier).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Flow curves for 644

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Flow curves for 645

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Flow curves for 646

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Flow curves for 647

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Flow curves for 648

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Flow curves for 649

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Flow curves for 650

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Measured EHL film thickness for 647 compared with the prediction of Ref. [8] using the parameters of Table 2




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In