Research Papers: Friction & Wear

Tribological Investigation of Nanographite Platelets as Additive in Anti-Wear Lubricant: A Top-Down Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Flavio A. C. Vidal

Product Research and Development Center,
Fiat Chrysler Group,
Av. Contorno, 3455,
Betim 32501-970, Brazil
e-mail: flavio.vidal@fiat.com.br

Antonio F. Ávila

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627,
Belo Horizonte 31270-910, Brazil
e-mail: aavila@netuno.lcc.ufmg.br

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received December 26, 2013; final manuscript received April 14, 2014; published online May 7, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 136(3), 031603 (May 07, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-13-1260; doi: 10.1115/1.4027479 History: Received December 26, 2013; Revised April 14, 2014

A top-down approach is employed to investigate the tribological effect of adding nanographite platelets (NGPs) to mineral base oil (MBO). The performance of the NGP-modified MBO was evaluated by examining the friction and anti-wear properties. Four different types of NGPs produced by two different processes were employed. The optimal NGP-modified MBO attained a significant wear and friction reduction when compared with the MBO without NGPs. The process used to exfoliate the graphite nanoplatelet samples provided better wear properties because of the graphene layers' smoother sliding mechanism. Graphene layers seeped inside the groove marks to keep the friction coefficient low.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Liu, W., and Chen, S., 2000, “An Investigation of the Tribological Behaviour of Surface-Modified ZnS Nanoparticles in Liquid Paraffin,” Wear, 238(2), pp. 120–124. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. F., Liu, W. M., and Xue, Q. J., 2001, “The Tribological Behaviors of Succinimide-modified Lanthanum Hydroxide Nanoparticles Blended With Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate as Additives in Liquid Paraffin,” Wear, 248(1–2), pp. 48–54. [CrossRef]
Zhou, J., Wu, Z., Zhang, A., Liu, W., and Dang, H., 2001, “Study on an Antiwear and Extreme Pressure Additive of Surface Coated LaF3 Nanoparticles in Liquid Paraffin,” Wear, 249(5–6), pp. 333–337. [CrossRef]
Senatore, A., D'Agostino, V., Petrone, V., Ciambelli, P., and Sarno, M., 2013, “Graphene Oxide Nanosheets as Effective Friction Modifier for Oil Lubricant: Materials, Methods, and Tribological Results,” ISRN Tribology Vol. 2013, pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Kumar, N., Dash, S., Tyagi, A. K., and Raj, B., 2011, “Super Low to High Friction of Turbostratic Graphite Under Various Atmospheric Test Conditions,” Tribol. Int., 44(12), pp. 1969–1978. [CrossRef]
Miyoshi, K., Street, Jr., K. W., Vander Wal, R. L., Andrews, R., and Sayir, A., 2005, “Solid Lubricant by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Air and in Vacuum,” Tribol. Lett., 19(3), pp. 191–201. [CrossRef]
Lu, H. F., Fei, B., Xin, J. H., Wang, R. H., Li, L., and Guan, W. C., 2007, “Synthesis and Lubricating Performance of a Carbon Nanotube Seeded Miniemulsion,” Carbon, 45(5), pp. 936–942. [CrossRef]
Zhang, W., Xu, B., Tanaka, A., and Koga, Y., 2009, “Frictional Behaviour of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films,” Carbon, 47(3), pp. 926–929. [CrossRef]
Huang, H. D., Tu, J. P., Gan, L. P., and Li, C. Z., 2006, “An Investigation on Tribological Properties of Graphite Nanosheets as Oil Additive,” Wear, 261(2), pp. 140–144. [CrossRef]
Lin, J., Wang, L., and Chen, G., 2011, “Modification of Graphene Platelets and Their Tribological Properties as a Lubricant Additive,” Tribol. Lett., 41(1), pp. 209–215. [CrossRef]
Belmonte, M., Ramírez, C., González-Julián, J., Schneider, J., Miranzo, P., and Osendi, M. I., 2013, “The Beneficial Effect of Graphene Nanofillers on the Tribological Performance of Ceramics,” Carbon, 61, pp. 431–435. [CrossRef]
Nieto, A., Lahiri, D., and Agarwal, A., 2012, “Synthesis and Properties of Bulk Graphene Nanoplatelets Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering,” Carbon, 50(11), pp. 4068–4077. [CrossRef]
Lee, H., Lee, N., Seo, Y., Eom, J., and Lee, S. W., 2009, “Comparison of Frictional Forces on Graphene and Graphite,” Nanotechnology, 20(32), p. 325701. [CrossRef]
Lin, L. Y., Kim, D. E., Kim, W. K., and Jun, S. C., 2011, “Friction and Wear Characteristics of Multi-layer Graphene Films Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 205(20), pp. 4864–4869. [CrossRef]
Berman, D., Erdemir, A., and Sumant, A. V., 2013, “Few Layer Graphene to Reduce Wear and Friction on Sliding Steel Surfaces,” Carbon, 54, pp. 454–459. [CrossRef]
Berman, D., Erdemir, A., and Sumant, A. V., 2013, “Reduced Wear and Friction Enabled by Graphene Layers on Sliding Steel Surfaces in Dry Nitrogen,” Carbon, 59, pp. 167–175. [CrossRef]
Alberts, M., Kalaitzidou, K., and Melkote, S., 2009, “An Investigation of Graphite Nanoplatelets as Lubricant in Grinding,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49(12–13), pp. 966–970. [CrossRef]
Fukushima, H., and Drzal, L. T., 2002, “Graphite Nanoplatelets as Reinforcements for Polymers: Structural and Electrical Properties,” Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the American Society for Composites, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Filleter, T., McChesney, J. L., Bostwick, A., Rotenberg, E., Emtsev, K. V., Seyller, T., Horn, K., and Bennewitz, R., 2009, “Friction and Dissipation in Epitaxial Graphene Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 102(8), p. 086102. [CrossRef]
Lee, C., Wei, X., Li, Q., Carpick, R., Kysar, J. W., and Hone, J., 2009, “Elastic and Frictional Properties of Graphene,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 246(11–12), pp. 2562–2567. [CrossRef]
Nacional de Grafite Privat Reports ref. EMS 1227, EMS 635, EMS 1893.
D445-12, 2012, “Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity),” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. [CrossRef]
D93-13, 2013, “Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. [CrossRef]
Avila, A. F., Yoshida, M.I., Carvalho, M. G. R., Dias, E. C., and Ávila, Jr., J., 2010, “An Investigation on Post-fire Behavior of Hybrid Nanocomposites Under Bending Loads,” Composites, Part B, 41(5), pp. 380–387. [CrossRef]
D4172-94, 2010, “Standard Test Method for Wear Preventive Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (Four-Ball Method),” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. [CrossRef]
D5183-05, 2011, “Standard Test Method for Determination of the Coefficient of Friction of Lubricants Using the Four-Ball Wear Test Machine,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. [CrossRef]
Birks, L. S., and Friedman, H., 1946, “Particle Size Determination from X-Ray Line Broadening,” J. Appl. Phys., 17, pp. 687–692. [CrossRef]
Tao, X., Jiazheng, Z., and Kang, X., 1996, “The Ball-Bearing Effect of Diamond Nanoparticles as an Oil Additive,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 29(11), pp. 2932–2937. [CrossRef]
Rapoport, L., Nepomnyashchy, O., Lapsker, I., Verdyan, A., Moshkovich, A., Feldman, Y., and Tenne, R., 2005, “Behavior of Fullerene-like WS2 Nanoparticles Under Severe Contact Conditions, Wear, 259(1–6), pp. 703–707. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

SEM images of nanographite platelets (a) NGP-1 (d50 = 9.88 μm); (b) NGP-2 (d50 = 27.53 μm); (c) NGP-3 (d50 = 52.11 μm); and (d) NGP-4 (d50 = 2.60 μm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Typical EDX analysis for all four NGPs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

WSD of steel balls using after four-ball experiments (a) MBO, (b) NGP-4-EX with 0.25 wt. %, and (c) NGP-1 with 0.25 wt. %

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Raman spectroscopy of NGP-4-EX

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

TEM images of nanographite platelets (a) typical TEM image of NGP-1, NGP-2, and NGP-3 with a graphene platelet thickness of about 10–20 nm and (b) image of NGP-4 with a graphene platelet thickness of about 20–30 nm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Typical TGA curves of NGPs at heating rate 10 °C/min in N2 atmosphere

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of NGPs' XRD Bragg peak at 2θ 26.5 deg, confirming morphological differences between NGP-4 and other NGPs, due to its distinct manufacturing processes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

WSD depending on the percentage and type of nanographite (four-ball, 1200 rpm, 147 N, 60 min, 75 ± 2 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

WSD for NGP-4 and NGP-4-EX depending on the percentage of nanographite (four-ball, 1200 rpm, 147 N, 60 min, 75 ± 2 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

WSD as a function of time for MBO and NGP-4-EX with 0.25 wt. % (four-ball, 1200 rpm, 147 N, 75 ± 2 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Friction coefficent for NGP-4 with 0.25 wt. %, NGP-4-EX with 0.25 wt. % and MBO (four-ball, 1200 rpm, 147 N, 75 ± 2 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

SEM images of worn steel balls after four-ball wear experiments: (a, b) using MBO; (c, d) using NGP-4-EX with 0.25 wt. %

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Images of worn steel balls after four-ball wear experiments (a) mineral oil with 0.25 wt. % NGP-4-EX and (b) 0.25 wt. % NGP-4-EX on the surface of wear track

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

EDX analysis of worn steel balls (a) using MBO and (b) using 0.25 wt. % NGP-4-EX confirming the presence of carbon on the worn steel balls' surface



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In