A tribo-dynamic model of a spiral-groove rotary seal ring is developed through coupling lubrication and dynamic equations. Effects of centrifugation, hydrodynamics, cavitation, and asperity contact are considered. To represent real rough surfaces, asperity contact is described by a statistics-based model. A global time marching scheme is developed to obtain the motion of seal ring and key parameters such as bearing force, friction torque, and leakage rate. Dynamic behaviors and seal characteristics of spiral-groove rotary seal ring under real and step change oil filling conditions are analyzed. The result shows that the rotary seal ring operates steadily under real conditions and has fast and stable step response. It is also indicated that the seal ring can achieve full film lubrication under high speed conditions through the oil filling and dispersing stage. The steady lubrication performance is experimentally validated.