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Technical Brief

An Investigation Into the Thermal Behavior of the Grooved Dry Friction Clutch

[+] Author and Article Information
Oday I. Abdullah

Hamburg University of Technology,
Denickestrasse 17 (Building L),
Hamburg 21073, Germany
e-mail: oday.abdullah@tuhh.de

Josef Schlattmann

System Technology and Mechanical Design Methodology,
Hamburg University of Technology,
Denickestrasse 17 (Building L),
Hamburg 21073, Germany
e-mail: j.schlattmann@tuhh.de

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 20, 2013; final manuscript received March 23, 2014; published online May 6, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Jordan Liu.

J. Tribol 136(3), 034504 (May 06, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: TRIB-13-1088; doi: 10.1115/1.4027388 History: Received April 20, 2013; Revised March 23, 2014

The heat generated during the sliding period at the initiation of engagement in friction clutches is considered to be one of the main reasons for the failure of the friction material. One way to reduce the risk of this problem is to increase the rate of heat transfer by convection or, in other words, reduce the heat content of the friction material (internal energy) and thereby increase the lifecycle of the friction clutch. In this paper, the finite element technique has been used to study the effect of radial circumferential grooves on the temperature distribution and the amount of energy transferred by convection for a dry friction clutch disk during a single engagement, assuming a uniform distribution for the thermal load between the contact surfaces (i.e., uniform wear on clutch surfaces). Three-dimensional transient simulations are conducted to study the thermoelastic coupling of the problem. The effect of the groove area ratio (GR, defined as the groove area divided by the nominal contact area) is investigated. Furthermore, this paper presents the equations for energy considerations and energy balance at any time for the friction clutch system. The numerical results show that the amount of energy transferred by convection from the friction material can be controlled (within a limitation) by adjusting the value of the groove area ratio. Commercial ANSYS13 software has been used to perform the numerical computations in this paper.

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References

El-sherbiny, M., and Newcomb, T. P., 1976, “Temperature Distributions in Automotive Dry Clutches,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 190, pp. 359–365. [CrossRef]
Lai, Y. G., 1998, “Simulation of Heat-Transfer Characteristics of Wet Clutch Engagement Processes,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 33, pp. 583–597. [CrossRef]
Kennedy, T. C., and Traiviratana, S., 2004, “Transient Effects on Heat Conduction in Sliding Bodies,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 47, pp. 57–77. [CrossRef]
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Gao, H., and Barber, G. C., 2002, “Engagement of a Rough, Lubricated and Grooved Disk Clutch With a Porous Deformable Paper-Based Friction Material,” J. Tribol. Trans., 45, pp. 464–470. [CrossRef]
Miyagawa, M., Ogawa, M., and Hara, H., 2009, “Numerical Simulation of Temperature and Torque Curve of Miltidisk Wet Clutch With Radial and Circumferential Grooves,” Tribol. Online, 4, pp. 17–21. [CrossRef]
Czél, B., Váradi, K., AlbersA., and Mitariu, M., 2009, “FE Thermal Analysis of a Ceramic Clutch,” Tribol. Int., 45, pp. 714–723. [CrossRef]
Jang, J. Y., Khonsari, M. M., and Maki, R., 2011, “Three-Dimensional Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of a Wet Clutch With Consideration of Grooved Friction Surfaces,” ASME J. Tribol., 133, p. 011703. [CrossRef]
Abdullah, O. I., and Schlattmann, J., 2012, “The Effect of Disc Radius on Heat Flux and Temperature Distribution in Friction Clutches,” J. Adv. Mater. Res., 505, pp. 154–164. [CrossRef]
Abdullah, O. I., and Schlattmann, J., 2012, “Finite Element Analysis of Dry Friction Clutch With Radial and Circumferential Grooves,” Proceedings of the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology Conference, Paris, France, Apr. 25–26, pp. 1279–1291.
Abdullah, O. I., and Schlattmann, J., 2012, “The Correction Factor for Rate of Energy Generated in the Friction Clutches Under Uniform Pressure Condition,” J. Adv. Theor. Appl. Mech., 5(6), pp. 277–290.
Ling, F. F., 1959, “A Quasi-Iterative Method for Computing Interface Temperature Distributions,” ZAMP, 10, pp. 461–474. [CrossRef]
Blok, H., 1940, “Fundamental Mechanical Aspects in Boundary Lubrication,” SAE Trans., 46, pp. 54–68.
Cook, R., 1995, “Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis,” Wiley, New York.

Figures

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Fig. 1

The power flow in a typical clutch system

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Fig. 2

The maximum temperature of the clutch system

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Fig. 3

The input and output thermal energies for the clutch disk

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Fig. 4

Boundary conditions for the friction clutch disk (without groove)

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Fig. 5

Boundary conditions for the friction clutch disk with radial circumferential grooves

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Fig. 6

Finite element models of friction lining of clutch, with and without grooves

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Fig. 7

Convergence solution with increasing number of time steps

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Fig. 8

Variation of maximum temperature with time

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Fig. 9

Variation of ΔQInt.energ with time for different GR

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Fig. 10

Variation of Qconv. with time for clutch disk with and without grooves

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