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Research Papers: Lubricants

Tribological Properties of Carbon Nanocapsule Particles as Lubricant Additive

[+] Author and Article Information
Yeau-Ren Jeng, Ping-Chi Tsai

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Chung Cheng University,
Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan;
Advanced Institute of Manufacturing
with High-Tech Innovations,
National Chung Cheng University,
Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan

Yao-Huei Huang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Chung Cheng University,
Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan

Gan-Lin Hwang

Green Energy and Eco-Technology Center,
Industrial Technology Research Institute,
Tainan 710, Taiwan

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 7, 2014; final manuscript received May 22, 2014; published online July 29, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Hong Liang.

J. Tribol 136(4), 041801 (Jul 29, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-14-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4027994 History: Received January 07, 2014; Revised May 22, 2014

An experimental investigation is performed into the tribological properties of mineral oil lubricants containing carbon nanocapsules (CNCs) additives with various concentrations (wt.%). Friction characteristics and wear behaviors at contact interfaces are examined by the block-on-ring tests, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and mapping (MAP) analysis. The results suggest that the addition of CNCs to the mineral oil yields an effective reduction in the friction coefficient at the contact interface. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations clarify the lubrication mechanism of CNCs at the sliding system, indicating the tribological properties are essentially sensitive to the structural evolutions of CNCs.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

HRTEM image showing spherical multilayered structure of CNCs with particle size ranging from 30 to 100 nm

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Fig. 2

Block-on-ring friction and wear test machine. (Schematic illustration).

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Fig. 3

High-resolution SEM and TEM images showing surface dispersion of CNC particles in lubricants with different CNC concentrations: (a) 0 wt.%, (b) 0.01 wt.%, (c) 0.03 wt.%, (d) 0.05 wt.%, (e) 0.07 wt.%, and (f) 0.1 wt.%

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Fig. 4

Variation of friction coefficient over time as function of CNC concentration. Note that the load and sliding velocity have values of 650 N and 1.65 m/s, respectively.

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Fig. 5

Variation of friction coefficient with CNC particle concentration given sliding velocities ranging from 0.55 to 1.65 m/s and a constant contact load of 650 N

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Fig. 6

Penetration and filling behavior of CNC particles in lubricants with CNC particle concentrations of: (a) 0.01 wt.% and (b) 0.05 wt.%.

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Fig. 7

Variation of friction coefficient with CNC particle concentration given sliding velocity of 1.65 m/s and the applied loads of 650 N and 1000 N

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Fig. 8

Variation of wear volumes with various CNC particle concentrations given the applied loads of 650 N and 1000 N, respectively

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Fig. 9

(a) TEM, (b) and (c) SEM, (d) and (e) EDS, and (d) MAP analysis results for wear surface given contact load of 650 N. (Note that the CNC concentration is 0.05 wt.% and the sliding velocity is 1.65 m/s.)

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Fig. 10

(a) SEM and EDS analysis results for wear surface given contact load of 650 N. (Note that the CNC concentration is 0.05 wt.% and the sliding velocity is 1.65 m/s.

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Fig. 11

(a) and (b) SEM, (c) EDS, and (d) MAP analysis results for wear surface given contact load of 1000 N. (Note that the CNC concentration is 0.05 wt.% and the sliding velocity is 1.65 m/s.)

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Fig. 12

MD simulation model used to investigate loading–sliding behavior of individual C60 nanoparticle

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Fig. 13

Atomistic configurations showing three distinct tribological mechanisms of an individual C60 nanoparticle during loading–sliding process: (a) rolling (), (b) rolling–sliding (), and (c) sliding ().

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