0
Research Papers: Biotribology

Equine Articular Cartilage Stiffness Determination Using Indentation

[+] Author and Article Information
Hyeon Lee

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849
e-mail: hlee777@vt.edu

Kelcie M. Theis, R. Reid Hanson

College of Veterinary Medicine,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849

Robert L. Jackson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Auburn University,
Auburn, AL 36849

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received December 8, 2013; final manuscript received July 13, 2014; published online October 3, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Zhong Min Jin.

J. Tribol 137(1), 011201 (Oct 03, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-13-1246; doi: 10.1115/1.4028285 History: Received December 08, 2013; Revised July 13, 2014

In order to determine that the stiffness varies between different joint types, an indentation test was performed on fresh equine articular cartilage surfaces from the fetlock, carpal, and stifle joints. The results demonstrated that the stiffness varies on different joints showing different mechanical behaviors. A flat-ended cylindrical indenter is lowered at a constant rate for 20 s until the indentation depth reaches 0.2 mm (velocity of 10 μm/s). It was shown that the articular cartilage of the fetlock is stiffer than the carpal and stifle joints. The average stiffness of the fetlock, carpal, and stifle joints are 46.1 N/mm, 20.5 N/mm, and 2.73 N/mm, respectively. The coefficients of a fit for the joints were statistically compared as well using the student t-test. The differences of some coefficients between the fetlock, carpus, and stifle were “very highly significant” (p < 0.001). Four different surfaces in the fetlock and four in carpal joint were compared as well. The front lateral, front medial, rear lateral, and rear medial cartilage surfaces in the fetlock were not significantly different in stiffness. In the carpus, the distal radius and proximal radial carpal bone articular cartilage surfaces showed significantly different stiffness from the others, while the distal radial carpal bone and proximal third carpal bone articular cartilage surfaces possessed similar stiffness values. The cartilage surfaces from the radiocarpal joint were stiffer than the midcarpal joint. Clear trends in the correlations between stiffness and weight as well as stiffness and age of the horse were not observed.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Stiffness , Cartilage
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Jin, Z. M., Stone, M., Ingham, E., and Fisher, J., 2006, “Biotribology,” Curr. Orthop., 20(1), pp. 32–40. [CrossRef]
Wang, F. C., and Jin, Z. M., 2005, “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Modeling of Artificial Hip Joints Under Steady-State Conditions,” ASME J. Tribol., 127(4), pp. 729–739. [CrossRef]
Hlavacek, M., 2005, “Squeeze-Film Lubrication of the Human Ankle Joint Subjected to the Cyclic Loading Encountered in Walking,” ASME J. Tribol., 127(1), pp. 141–148. [CrossRef]
Suciu, A. N., Iwatsubo, T., and Matsuda, M., 2003, “Theoretical Investigation of an Artificial Joint With Micro-Pocket-Covered Component and Biphasic Cartilage on the Opposite Articulating Surface,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 125(4), pp. 425–433. [CrossRef]
Hlavacek, M., 2001, “The Thixotropic Effect of the Synovial Fluid in Squeeze-Film Lubrication of the Human Hip Joint,” Biorheology, 38(4), pp. 319–334. [PubMed]
Jalali-Vahid, D., Jagatia, N., Jin, Z. M., and Dowson, D., 2001, “Prediction of Lubricating Film Thickness in a Ball-in-Socket Model With a Soft Lining Representing Human Natural and Artificial Hip Joints,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. J, 215(J4), pp. 363–372. [CrossRef]
Graindorge, S. L., and Stachowiak, G. W., 2000, “Changes Occurring in the Surface Morphology of Articular Cartilage During Wear,” Wear, 241(2), pp. 143–150. [CrossRef]
Stewart, T., Jin, Z. M., and Fisher, J., 1998, “Analysis of Contact Mechanics for Composite Cushion Knee Joint Replacements,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H, 212(H1), pp. 1–10. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jin, Z. M., Dowson, D., and Fisher, J., 1997, “Analysis of Fluid Film Lubrication in Artificial Hip Joint Replacements With Surfaces of High Elastic Modulus,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H, 211(3), pp. 247–256. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fein, R. S., 1967, “Are Synovial Joints Squeeze-Film Lubricated,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. J, 181(10), pp. 125–128.
Higginson, G. R., 1978, “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication in Human Joints,” Eng. Med., 7(1), pp. 35–41. [CrossRef]
Fisher, J., and Dowson, D., 1991, “Tribology of Total Artificial Joints,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H, 205(2), pp. 73–79. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Poiré, E., 2009, “Advanced Surface Mechanical Testing of Materials for Medical Applications,” Proceedings of 4th Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference, Irvine, CA, June 8–9.
Røhl, L., Linde, F., Odgaard, A., and Hvid, I., 1997, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stiffness and Energy Absorptive Properties of Articular Cartilage and Subchondral Trabecular Bone,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H, 211(3), pp. 257–264. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bang, H., Chiu, Y.-l., Memtsoudis, S. G., Mandl, L. A., Della Valle, A. G., Mushlin, A. I., Marx, R. G., and Mazumdar, M., 2010, “Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasties: Trends and Disparities Revisited,” Am. J. Orthop., 39(9), pp. E95–102. [PubMed]
Fisher, E. S., Bell, J., Tomek, I., Esty, A., Goodman, D., and Bronner, K., 2010, “Trends and Regional Variation in Hip, Knee, and Shoulder Replacement,” Dartmouth Atlas Surgery Report, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Hanover, NH.
Kurtz, S. M., Ong, K. L., Lau, E., Widmer, M., Maravic, M., Gomez-Barrena, E., de Pina Mde, F., Manno, V., Torre, M., Walter, W. L., de Steiger, R., Geesink, R. G., Peltola, M., and Roder, C., 2011, “International Survey of Primary and Revision Total Knee Replacement,” Int. Orthop., 35(12), pp. 1783–1789. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
The Burden of Musculoskeletal Diseases, 2008, “The Burden of Musculoskeletal Diseases in the United States,” http://www.boneandjointburden.org
Jin, Z. M., and Dowson, D., 2005, “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication in Biological Systems,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. J, 219(5), pp. 367–380. [CrossRef]
Pylios, T., and Shepherd, D. E. T., 2004, “Prediction of Lubrication Regimes in Wrist Implants With Spherical Bearing Surfaces,” J. Biomech., 37(3), pp. 405–411. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Freeman, M. E., Furey, M. J., Love, B. J., and Hampton, J. M., 2000, “Friction, Wear, and Lubrication of Hydrogels as Synthetic Articular Cartilage,” Wear, 241(2), pp. 129–135. [CrossRef]
Covert, R. J., Ku, D. N., and Ott, R. D., 2003, “Friction Characteristics of a Potential Articular Cartilage Biomaterial,” Wear, 255(7–12), pp. 1064–1068. [CrossRef]
Caravia, L., Dowson, D., Fisher, J., Corkhill, P. H., and Tighe, B. J., 1993, “Comparison of Friction in Hydrogel and Polyurethane Materials for Cushion-Form Joints,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med., 4(5), pp. 515–520. [CrossRef]
Sawae, Y., Murakami, T., Higaki, H., and Moriyama, S., 1996, “Lubrication Property of Total Knee Prostheses With PVA Hydrogel Layer as Artificial Cartilage,” JSME Int. J., Ser. C, 39(2), pp. 356–364.
Stammen, J. A., Williams, S., Ku, D. N., and Guldberg, R. E., 1999, “Mechanical Properties of a Novel Hydrogel for the Replacement of Damaged Articular Cartilage,” Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology—Proceedings, Vol. 2, Atlanta, GA, Oct. 13–16, p. 725.
Caravia, L., Dowson, D., Fisher, J., Corkhill, P. H., and Tighe, B. J., 1995, “Friction of Hydrogel and Polyurethane Elastic Layers When Sliding Against Each Other Under a Mixed Lubrication Regime,” Wear, 181–183(1), pp. 236–240. [CrossRef]
Murakami, T., Higaki, H., Sawae, Y., Ohtsuki, N., Moriyama, S., and Nakanishi, Y., 1998, “Adaptive Multimode Lubrication in Natural Synovial Joints and Artificial Joints,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H, 212(1), pp. 23–35. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Steika, N. A., Furey, M. J., Veit, H. P., and Brittberg, M., 2005, Biotribology: The Wear Resistance of Repaired Human Articular Cartilage, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, pp. 619–620.
Ateshian, G. A., 2009, “The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication,” J. Biomech., 42(9), pp. 1163–1176. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ateshian, G. A., and Wang, H., 1995, “A Theoretical Solution for the Frictionless Rolling Contact of Cylindrical Biphasic Articular Cartilage Layers,” J. Biomech., 28(11), pp. 1341–1355. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bonnevie, E., Baro, V., Wang, L., and Burris, D. L., 2011, “In Situ Studies of Cartilage Microtribology: Roles of Speed and Contact Area,” Tribol. Lett., 41(1), pp. 83–95. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bonnevie, E. D., Baro, V. J., Wang, L., and Burris, D. L., 2012, “Fluid Load Support During Localized Indentation of Cartilage With a Spherical Probe,” J. Biomech., 45(6), pp. 1036–1041. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Brama, P., Karssenberg, D., Barneveld, A., and van Weeren, P., 2001, “Contact Areas and Pressure Distribution on the Proximal Articular Surface of the Proximal Phalanx Under Sagittal Plane Loading,” Equine Vet. J., 33(1), pp. 26–32. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cao, L., Youn, I., Guilak, F., and Setton, L. A., 2006, “Compressive Properties of Mouse Articular Cartilage Determined in a Novel Micro-Indentation Test Method and Biphasic Finite Element Model,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 128(5), pp. 766–771. [CrossRef]
Frisbie, D., Cross, M., and McIlwraith, C., 2006, “A Comparative Study of Articular Cartilage Thickness in the Stifle of Animal Species Used in Human Pre-Clinical Studies Compared to Articular Cartilage Thickness in the Human Knee,” Vet. Comp. Orthop. Traumatol., 19(3), pp. 142–146. [PubMed]
Jin, H., and Lewis, J. L., 2004, “Determination of Poisson's Ratio of Articular Cartilage by Indentation Using Different-Sized Indenters,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 126(2), pp. 138–145. [CrossRef]
Lu, X. L., Sun, D. N., Guo, X. E., Chen, F., Lai, W. M., and Mow, V., 2004, “Indentation Determined Mechanoelectrochemical Properties and Fixed Charge Density of Articular Cartilage,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 32(3), pp. 370–379. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lux Lu, X., Miller, C., Chen, F. H., Edward Guo, X., and Mow, V. C., 2007, “The Generalized Triphasic Correspondence Principle for Simultaneous Determination of the Mechanical Properties and Proteoglycan Content of Articular Cartilage by Indentation,” J. Biomech., 40(11), pp. 2434–2441. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mansour, J. M., and Mow, V. C., 1976, “The Permeability of Articular Cartilage Under Compressive Strain and at High Pressures,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 58(4), pp. 509–516. [PubMed]
Mow, V., 1980, “Biphasic Creep and Stress Relaxation of Articular Cartilage in Compression,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 102(1), pp. 73–84. [CrossRef]
Mow, V., Gibbs, M., Lai, W., Zhu, W., and Athanasiou, K., 1989, “Biphasic Indentation of Articular Cartilage—II. A Numerical Algorithm and an Experimental Study,” J. Biomech., 22(8), pp. 853–861. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Palmer, J. L., Bertone, A. L., and Litsky, A., 1994, “Contact Area and Pressure Distribution Changes of the Equine Third Carpal Bone During Loading,” Equine Vet. J., 26(3), pp. 197–202. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Parsons, J., and Black, J., 1977, “The Viscoelastic Shear Behavior of Normal Rabbit Articular Cartilage,” J. Biomech., 10(1), pp. 21–29. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Simha, N. K., Jin, H., Hall, M. L., Chiravarambath, S., and Lewis, J. L., 2007, “Effect of Indenter Size on Elastic Modulus of Cartilage Measured by Indentation,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 129(5), pp. 767–775. [CrossRef]
Smyth, P. A., Rifkin, R. E., Jackson, R. L., and Reid Hanson, R., 2012, “A Surface Roughness Comparison of Cartilage in Different Types of Synovial Joints,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 134(2), p. 021006. [CrossRef]
Smyth, P. A., Rifkin, R. E., Jackson, R. L., and Reid Hanson, R., 2012, “The Fractal Structure of Equine Articular Cartilage,” Scanning, 34(6), pp. 418–426. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ahern, B., Parvizi, J., Boston, R., and Schaer, T., 2009, “Preclinical Animal Models in Single Site Cartilage Defect Testing: A Systematic Review,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 17(6), pp. 705–713. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chu, C. R., Szczodry, M., and Bruno, S., 2010, “Animal Models for Cartilage Regeneration and Repair,” Tissue Eng. B, 16(1), pp. 105–115. [CrossRef]
McIlwraith, C. W., Fortier, L. A., Frisbie, D. D., and Nixon, A. J., 2011, “Equine Models of Articular Cartilage Repair,” Cartilage, 2(4), pp. 317–326. [CrossRef]
Malda, J., Benders, K., Klein, T., de Grauw, J., Kik, M., Hutmacher, D., Saris, D., van Weeren, P., and Dhert, W., 2012, “Comparative Study of Depth-Dependent Characteristics of Equine and Human Osteochondral Tissue From the Medial and Lateral Femoral Condyles,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 20(10), pp. 1147–1151. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Adams, O. R., and Stashak, T. S., 2008, Adams' Lameness in Horses, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
Burn, J. F., Portus, B., and Brockington, C., 2006, “The Effect of Speed and Gradient on Hyperextension of the Equine Carpus,” Vet. J., 171(1), pp. 169–171. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Clayton, H., Sha, D., Stick, J., and Mullineaux, D., 2004, “Three‐Dimensional Carpal Kinematics of Trotting Horses,” Equine Vet. J., 36(8), pp. 671–676. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dyce, K. M., Sack, W. O., and Wensing, C. J. G., 2009, Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
DiSilvestro, M. R., and Suh, J.-K. F., 2001, “A Cross-Validation of the Biphasic Poroviscoelastic Model of Articular Cartilage in Unconfined Compression, Indentation, and Confined Compression,” J. Biomech., 34(4), pp. 519–525. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Merkher, Y., Sivan, S., Etsion, I., Maroudas, A., Halperin, G., and Yosef, A., 2006, “A Rational Friction Test Using a Human Cartilage On-Cartilage Arrangement,” Tribol. Lett., 22(1), pp. 29–36. [CrossRef]
Verberne, G., Merkher, Y., Halperin, G., Maroudas, A., and Etsion, I., 2009, “Techniques for Assessment of Wear Between Human Cartilage Surfaces,” Wear, 266(11), pp. 1216–1223. [CrossRef]
Bae, W. C., Temple, M. M., Amiel, D., Coutts, R. D., Niederauer, G. G., and Sah, R. L., 2003, “Indentation Testing of Human Cartilage: Sensitivity to Articular Surface Degeneration,” Arthritis Rheum., 48(12), pp. 3382–3394. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sayles, R., Thomas, T., Anderson, J., Haslock, I., and Unsworth, A., 1979, “Measurement of the Surface Microgeometry of Articular Cartilage,” J. Biomech., 12(4), pp. 257–267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mak, A., Lai, W., and Mow, V., 1987, “Biphasic Indentation of Articular Cartilage—I. Theoretical Analysis,” J. Biomech., 20(7), pp. 703–714. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kerin, A., Wisnom, M., and Adams, M., 1998, “The Compressive Strength of Articular Cartilage,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H, 212(4), pp. 273–280. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Oliver, W. C., and Pharr, G. M., 1992, “Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments,” J. Mater. Res., 7(6), pp. 1564–1583. [CrossRef]
Pharr, G., Oliver, W., and Brotzen, F., 1992, “On the Generality of the Relationship Among Contact Stiffness, Contact Area, and Elastic Modulus During Indentation,” J. Mater. Res., 7(3), pp. 613–617. [CrossRef]
Clayton, H. M., Lanovaz, J., Schamhardt, H., and van Wessum, R., 1999, “The Effects of a Rider's Mass on Ground Reaction Forces and Fetlock Kinematics at the Trot,” Equine Vet. J., 31(S30), pp. 218–221. [CrossRef]
Den Hartog, S., Back, W., Brommer, H., and van Weeren, P., 2009, “In Vitro Evaluation of Metacarpophalangeal Joint Loading During Simulated Walk,” Equine Vet. J., 41(3), pp. 214–217. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Murray, R., Zhu, C., Goodship, A., Lakhani, K., Agrawal, C., and Athanasiou, K., 1999, “Exercise Affects the Mechanical Properties and Histological Appearance of Equine Articular Cartilage,” J. Orthop. Res., 17(5), pp. 725–731. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pasquini, C. J., Spurgeon, T. L., and Pasquini, S., 1992, Anatomy of Domestic Animals: Systemic and Regional Approach, Sudz Publishing, Collinsville, TX.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Comparative size of distal femurs between a rat, a goat, and a human from left to right with coins (top) and the equine distal femur with a quarter (bottom) at the same scale (Chu et al. [48])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The locations of the fetlock, carpal, and stifle joints in equine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Radiograph of the fetlock (left) and the distal metacarpus III (right) articular cartilage surface divided into two sections: medial and lateral metacarpus III condyle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The radiocarpal joint of the carpus (left), the distal radius (C1), and the proximal radial carpal bone (C2) articular cartilage surfaces from the joint (the dashed line indicates the range of motion)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The midcarpal joint of the carpus (left), the distal radial carpal bone (C3), and the proximal third carpal bone (C4) articular cartilage surfaces from the joint (the dashed line indicates the range of motion)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Radiograph of the stifle (left) and medial femoral condyle (right) articular cartilage surface from the joint

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

UMT-3 performing indentation tests of articular cartilage submerged in saline

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Schematic of the indentation test setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

A raw data of an indentation test on a surface of C2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparison of the force throughout the indentation depth between the fetlock, carpus, and stifle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison of the stiffness throughout the indentation depth between the fetlock, carpus, and stifle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of the stiffness throughout the indentation depth between the articular cartilage surfaces from the fetlock joint

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of the stiffness throughout the indentation depth between the articular cartilage surfaces from the carpal joint

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In